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Sýn barna á kórónuveiruna og áhrif hennar á þátttöku þeirra í daglegu starfi í leikskóla

Sýn barna á kórónuveiruna og áhrif hennar á þátttöku þeirra í daglegu starfi í leikskóla


Title: Sýn barna á kórónuveiruna og áhrif hennar á þátttöku þeirra í daglegu starfi í leikskóla
Alternative Title: Children’s perspectives in times of COVID-19 towards the impact on their participation in preschool
Author: Ólafsdóttir, Sara M.
Karlsdóttir, Kristín
Sigurjónsdóttir, Díana Lind
Date: 2020-12-31
Language: Icelandic
Scope: 17
Department: Deild kennslu- og menntunarfræði
Series: Netla; Sérrit: Menntakerfi og heimili á tímum Covid-19()
ISSN: 1670-0244
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24270/serritnetla.2020.23
Subject: Leikskólabörn; Sjónarmið barna; Dagskipulag; áhrifamáttur barna; Sjónarmið barna; Dagskipulag; áhrifamáttur barna; Kórónuveirur; COVID-19; Leikskólastarf; Children’s perspectives; preschool; preschool practice; COVID-19; children's agency; Menntun
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3323

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Citation:

Ólafsdóttir , S M , Karlsdóttir , K & Sigurjónsdóttir , D L 2020 , ' Sýn barna á kórónuveiruna og áhrif hennar á þátttöku þeirra í daglegu starfi í leikskóla ' , Netla , bind. Sérrit: Menntakerfi og heimili á tímum Covid-19 . https://doi.org/10.24270/serritnetla.2020.23

Abstract:

 
Markmið þessarar rannsóknar var að komast að hvernig börn upplifðu leikskólastarf á tímum COVID-19 þegar fyrsta bylgja faraldursins gekk yfir. Tilgangur rannsóknarinnar var að læra af börnunum og nýta þá þekkingu sem skapaðist til þess að styðja betur við börn á fordæmalausum tímum. Rannsóknin byggir á þeim hugmyndum að börn á leikskólaaldri séu getumiklir einstaklingar sem byggi upp þekkingu í samvinnu við önnur börn og fullorðna, þau hafi rétt til þess að hafa áhrif og vera gerendur í eigin lífi. Þátttakendur í rannsókninni voru 23 börn, 3–6 ára, á þremur deildum í einum leikskóla á landsbyggðinni. Tekin voru hópviðtöl við börnin og þeim boðið að teikna á meðan þau ræddu við rannsakanda. Helstu niðurstöður eru að börnin sýndu töluverða þekkingu á kórónuveirunni og þeim áhrifum sem hún hafði á daglegt starf í leikskólanum. Börnin höfðu mismunandi sýn á þær takmarkanir sem settar voru vegna sóttvarna, sumum fannst gott að hafa fá börn í leikskólanum en önnur upplifðu sig ein í barnahópnum vegna fjarveru vina og vildu ekki leika sér. Börnin töluðu um efnivið og svæði í leikskólanum sem þeim þótti skemmtilegast að leika sér á en þau höfðu ekki aðgang að vegna takmarkana og það þótti þeim leiðinlegt. Niðurstöðurnar undirstrika mikilvægi þess að taka þarf mið af sjónarmiðum barna og hlusta á fjölbreytta tjáningu þeirra svo að styðja megi betur við þarfir þeirra og vellíðan í daglegu starfi leikskólans á tímum takmarkana sem og aðra daga.
 
We are living in an unparalleled time of a pandemic that has affected communities all over the world, and the school system has not been spared. Different measures have been implemented, and in some countries, preschools and primary schools were closed to reduce the spread of the disease and protect the health care system. The closing of schools has affected the education of 80% of children in the world. In Iceland, the Ministry of Health decided not to close the schools. Instead, restrictions on their operations were imposed. This decision was made because children seemed to be less affected by the virus than did adults. It was considered important to keep the schools open so that children could have access to education and care and maintain their daily routines. The restrictions recommended were for schools to reduce the number of children in groups and to separate groups over a period to lower the risk of infection. In preschools, the groups were separated by allocating days for each group to come to the preschool. Consequently, children were not able to attend the preschool every day. However, exceptions were made for children in vulnerable groups and those whose parents were front-line workers. The aim of this study is to explore how the children experienced changes made in the preschool during the first wave of the pandemic. The purpose is to learn from the children and use the knowledge created to support children and the planning of the preschool environment in unprecedented times. The research builds on the idea that children are competent persons who construct their knowledge in collaboration with other children and adults. They have the right to be active participants in society and influence their daily lives. The research was conducted in one preschool in Iceland. Daily, 120 children attend the preschool in six classes. During the restrictions, only half of the children could attend the school. Twenty-three children, aged three to six years, participated in the study. The children took part in group interviews during the period of restrictions and two months later when the restrictions had been reduced. The children were invited to draw during the conversation with the researcher. The discussion was about COVID-19 and how it affected daily practice in the preschool. The conversations with the children were audiorecorded, transcribed, and used for further analysis. Thematic analysis was applied to find key issues and develop themes, searching for an answer to the research question which was: How do the children experience the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on their participation in daily practice in the preschool? The main findings of the study appearing in the data, the interviews, and children’s drawings revealed the children as having considerable knowledge about the pandemic and its effects on society as well as in daily life in homes and the preschool. Most of the children experienced limitations in their preschool days, such as in their social relations, access to play materials, and the available play areas. The children’s views towards the restrictions were diverse. Some children thought it was good to have fewer children in the preschool, as there was less noise than before. Other children expressed a feeling of loneliness within the group of children because of the absence of friends. These children did not want to play, or as Snær put it: “But now Ólafur is at home…and I am just alone with the other children, which sometimes makes me sad.” What seemed to be the most difficult aspect for the children during the pandemic was not being able to play with their friends. The children’s discussion seemed to focus more on the negative effect of the restrictions than the positive. All the children agreed on the COVID-19 time as being boring and one of the participating girls expressed the wish that COVID-19 would vanish. The findings of the study underline the importance of preschool teachers gaining insight into children’s views, seeing what is important for children, and supporting and including their perspectives when making plans for the preschool. According to the Icelandic National Curriculum Guide (Mennta- og menningarmálaráðuneytið, 2011), children should be provided with varied environments where they are able to use their strengths and construct a positive self-image. The findings of this study indicate that in the preschool practice, the points of emphasis in the school curricula could not be fully followed during COVID-19. During the restrictions, the children were mainly located in their classroom and could not always play with friends. Access to play materials was limited as were areas for play and other activities. The results underline the importance of considering children’s perspectives and listening to their multiple ways of expressing themselves to be able to support their needs and well-being in the daily preschool practice, both in times of restrictions and all other days.
 

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