Opin vísindi

Fósturbarn eins og kría á steini: reynsla barna af fóstri og skólagöngu

Fósturbarn eins og kría á steini: reynsla barna af fóstri og skólagöngu


Titill: Fósturbarn eins og kría á steini: reynsla barna af fóstri og skólagöngu
Aðrir titlar: Children‘s experiences of foster care and schooling
Höfundur: Guttormsdóttir, Áslaug B.
Kristinsdóttir, Guðrún
Útgáfa: 2017-10-17
Tungumál: Íslenska
Háskóli/Stofnun: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
Svið: Menntavísindasvið (HÍ)
School of education (UI)
Birtist í: Netla ársrit 2017;
ISSN: 1670-0244
Efnisorð: Fósturbörn; Skólaganga; Eigindlegar rannsóknir; Námsárangur; Valdefling; Samfella í námi
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/605

Skoða fulla færslu

Tilvitnun:

Áslaug B. Guttormsdóttir og Guðrún Kristinsdóttir. (2017). Fósturbarn eins og kría á steini– reynsla barna af fóstri og skólagöngu Netla – Veftímarit um uppeldi og menntun. Menntavísindasvið Háskóla Íslands. Sótt af http://netla.hi.is/greinar/2017/ryn/09

Útdráttur:

 
Börnum sem geta ekki dvalið hjá foreldrum sínum vegna erfiðra aðstæðna er jafnan komið í fóstur á einkaheimili fyrir tilstilli barnaverndarnefnda. Markmiðið er að búa barninu tímabundið tryggar uppeldisaðstæður eða að koma því varanlega fyrir þegar ekki þykir unnt að bæta aðstæður þess með öðrum hætti. Til fósturráðstöfunar er því einkum gripið þegar talið er að líkamlegri eða andlegri heilsu barnsins eða þroska þess sé hætta búin vegna framferðis foreldra eða vegna hegðunar barnsins. Rannsóknir staðfesta að námsgengi fósturbarna er oft slæmt, óstöðugleiki í fóstri hefur neikvæð áhrif og samráði við börn um ákvarðanir í málum er oft áfátt. Þessi grein fjallar um rannsókn á fóstri barna og skólagöngu. Markmiðið var að athuga reynslu viðmælenda af fósturdvöl og skólagöngu, m.a. hvort þeir teldu að haft hefði verið samráð við þá um ákvarðanir. Um var að ræða viðtalsathugun með þátttöku- og barnmiðuðu sniði, þar sem reynt var að veita viðmælendum talsvert sjálfdæmi um tilhögun viðtala. Rætt var við fjóra unglinga á aldrinum 14 til 16 ára. Sumir höfðu dvalið á víxl í fóstri eða hjá foreldrum. Í niðurstöðum vöktu áföll og tíð skipti um skóla einna mesta athygli og það beindi meðal annars athygli að óstöðugleika fóstursins. Hvert barn hafði sótt 4–5 skóla. Á þeim tíma þegar rannsóknin var gerð höfðu börnin alls skipt um skóla 26 sinnum og lent í ýmsum vanda, t.d. einelti og óréttmætum ásökunum. Reynsla fósturbarnanna af skólagöngu var með ýmsu móti. Samvinna var nokkur milli skólans og barnaverndarnefndar sveitarfélagsins en samráð við börnin lítið og vinnuaðferðir virtust ekki efla þau nema að litlu leyti. Erfitt reyndist að finna börn til að ræða við og strandaði þar mest á milliliðum sem þurfa að leyfa slíkt. Rannsóknin náði til fárra og var markmiðið því ekki að alhæfa um niðurstöður. Í ljósi þeirra má þó álykta að barnaverndarnefndir og skólar þurfi, a.m.k. stundum, að skilgreina betur frumkvæði, tryggja fósturbörnum meira öryggi og treysta betur námsgengi þeirra. Þess er vænst að niðurstöðurnar geti nýst til að efla menntun fósturbarna.
 
Child protection committees place children in foster care due to difficult conditions in their parental home. The goal of this measure is to safeguard children’s situation and upbringing, either temporarily or permanently, when other special measures do not suffice. Foster care placements are used by child protection authorities if a child may be physically or mentally endangered by the parent’s situation or by the child’s own behaviour. Research generally shows poorer educational outcomes for children in foster care than for other learners. Findings also confirm that placement disruption and breakdown negatively affects children’s well- being and schooling. Studies of case handling in child protection show lack of children’s participation in decision making which goes against the participation principle in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. This paper reports on a study of children’s own experiences on foster care and schooling. It aimed in particular at exploring whether the children under study had been consulted and empowered by child protection and educational professionals who handled their matters. The sample was recruited through child protection authorities. Finding interviewees proved to be time consuming and complicated, mostly due to lack of assistance and because gatekeepers were reluctant to grant access. The research was conducted by using child-focused interview methods. Open questions were used to enable the children to talk freely and adjust the interviews to a certain extent. Pictures, signs and conversation cards were applied to encourage the children to participate actively in dialogues. Four foster children were interviewed; two boys and two girls, all 14-16 years of age. Questions mainly concerned well-being in foster care, albeit some were retrospective in order to contextualise the accounts. The children stayed temporarily or permanently in foster care while attending primary school. They had earlier lived in various parts of Iceland and had to attend school geographically far away from their homes, parents and families. Their case handling was under the jurisdiction of various child protection authorities in different regions of the country. Some children moved temporarily from the foster home to the parental home and returned later to the same or another placement. The number of attended schools was a significant issue. During years of primary school each child had changed school 4 – 11 times and in total the children had attended seventeen schools. The children’s experiences varied, both in temporarily and permanent foster care. For instance, one boy in permanent care, where stability and good daily care dominated, was reported as being content and comfortable, while one girl where placements were disrupted was repeatedly sexually abused. The children had learning difficulties, physical and behavioural problems, were mobbed by peers and some met with unreasonable accusations. There had been some cooperation between the schools and the child protection authorities, but none of the children were consulted which deprived them of the opportunity to influence their own situation. Those who faced problems did not obtain a spokesman who could listen and explain the reasons behind foster arrangements or other practicalities. For instance, one girl’s request for a spokesman, a service to which she was entitled according to the Icelandic Child Protection Act, was repeatedly denied. This study was based on a small sample which provided no ground for generalization and limits definite conclusions. However, the experiences of the interviewees on foster care and schooling enable deeper understanding of the issue, in particular as it is under-researched in Iceland. The findings indicate that schools should enhance safeguarding measures of children in foster care. Professionals also need to attend more carefully to educational needs of children in foster care. Furthermore, clear goals need to be introduced in regard to cooperation of educational and child protection authorities and the same is true for procedures concerning school attendance of children placed in foster care. According to this study and other research referred to in the article, these recommendations may be important preconditions for coping effectively in adult life.
 

Leyfi:

CC BY 4.0

Skrár

Þetta verk birtist í eftirfarandi safni/söfnum:


Fletta

Um vefinn

Reikningurinn minn