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Whale sanctuaries – An analysis of their contribution to marine ecosystem-based management

Whale sanctuaries – An analysis of their contribution to marine ecosystem-based management

Title: Whale sanctuaries – An analysis of their contribution to marine ecosystem-based management
Author: Cook, David   orcid.org/0000-0001-9200-0515
Malinauskaite, Laura   orcid.org/0000-0002-8545-4989
Roman, Joe
Davidsdottir, Brynhildur   orcid.org/0000-0001-9783-9942
Ögmundardóttir, Helga
Date: 2019-12
Language: English
Scope: 104987
University/Institute: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
School: Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)
Félagsvísindasvið (HÍ)
School of Social Sciences (UI)
Department: Umhverfis- og auðlindafræði (HÍ)
Environment and Natural Resources (UI)
Félagsfræði-, mannfræði- og þjóðfræðideild (HÍ)
Faculty of Sociology, Anthropology and Folkloristics (UI)
Hagfræðideild (HÍ)
Faculty of Economics (UI)
Líf- og umhverfisvísindadeild (HÍ)
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences (UI)
Series: Ocean & Coastal Management;182
ISSN: 0964-5691
DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.104987
Subject: Whales; Sanctuary; Ecosystem services; Marine protected areas; Ecosystem-based management; Hvalir; Umhverfisvernd; Sjávarvistfræði; Vistkerfi; Umhverfishagfræði; Friðlönd
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/1700

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Cook, D., Malinauskaite, L., Roman, J., Davíðsdóttir, B., & Ögmundardóttir, H. (2019). Whale sanctuaries – An analysis of their contribution to marine ecosystem-based management. Ocean & Coastal Management, 182, 104987. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.104987


Goal 14, ‘Life Below Water’, of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals sets a target for nations to increase the number of marine protected areas managed using ecosystem-based management, which requires interventions focused on fish stock conservation and enhancement, environmental sustainability and ecosystem services of benefit to human beings. Although not adhering to the International Union for Conservation of Nature's criteria for marine protected areas, whale sanctuaries are an increasingly common approach to conservation around the world. This paper is the first in the academic literature to use a case study approach to review the extent to which whale sanctuaries contribute to ecosystem-based management. A fifteen-criteria framework for marine ecosystem-based management is applied with reference to six whale sanctuary case studies, including the International Whaling Commission's two designations in the Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean. The review underscores the generally very limited contribution of whale sanctuaries to ecosystem-based management, unless they are explicit in stating conservation goals and embedding these within iterative management plans. The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary is cited as an example of an approach that comes closest to fulfilling the objectives of ecosystem-based management, albeit its designation lacks consideration of ecosystem dynamics and the interrelationships between multiple economic actors operating within its boundaries. In order to meet the requirements of Goal 14, the case studies in this paper reveal advancements necessary for whale sanctuaries to transition towards ecosystem-based management: establishment of objectives broader than the conservation of whale stocks, assessment of the contribution of the sanctuary to human well-being and trade-offs in ecosystem services, accounting for ecological and socio-economic dynamics, and ensuring broad stakeholder consultation and participatory adaptive management.


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