Opin vísindi

The Icelandic volcanic aeolian environment: Processes and impacts — A review

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dc.contributor Landbúnaðarháskóli Íslands
dc.contributor Agricultural University of Iceland
dc.contributor Háskóli Íslands
dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor.author Arnalds, Olafur
dc.contributor.author Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla
dc.contributor.author Olafsson, Haraldur
dc.date.accessioned 2016-09-08T13:41:42Z
dc.date.available 2016-09-08T13:41:42Z
dc.date.issued 2016-02-15
dc.identifier.citation Ólafur Arnalds, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova og Haraldur Ólafsson. 2016. The Icelandic volcanic aeolian environment: Processes and impacts. Aeolian Research 20:176-195
dc.identifier.issn 1875-9637
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/96
dc.description.abstract Iceland has the largest area of volcaniclastic sandy desert on Earth or 22,000 km2. The sand has been mostly produced by glacio-fluvial processes, leaving behind fine-grained unstable sediments which are later re-distributed by repeated aeolian events. Volcanic eruptions add to this pool of unstable sediments, often from subglacial eruptions. Icelandic desert surfaces are divided into sand fields, sandy lavas and sandy lag gravel, each with separate aeolian surface characteristics such as threshold velocities. Storms are frequent due to Iceland’s location on the North Atlantic Storm track. Dry winds occur on the leeward sides of mountains and glaciers, in spite of the high moisture content of the Atlantic cyclones. Surface winds often move hundreds to more than 1000 kg m−1 per annum, and more than 10,000 kg m−1 have been measured in a single storm. Desertification occurs when aeolian processes push sand fronts and have thus destroyed many previously fully vegetated ecosystems since the time of the settlement of Iceland in the late ninth century. There are about 135 dust events per annum, ranging from minor storms to >300,000 t of dust emitted in single storms. Dust production is on the order of 30–40 million tons annually, some traveling over 1000 km and deposited on land and sea. Dust deposited on deserts tends to be re-suspended during subsequent storms. High PM10 concentrations occur during major dust storms. They are more frequent in the wake of volcanic eruptions, such as after the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption. Airborne dust affects human health, with negative effects enhanced by the tubular morphology of the grains, and the basaltic composition with its high metal content. Dust deposition on snow and glaciers intensifies melting. Moreover, the dust production probably also influences atmospheric conditions and parameters that affect climate change.
dc.format.extent 176-195
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher International Society for Aeolian Research
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Vindrof
dc.subject Veðurfar
dc.subject Wind erosion
dc.title The Icelandic volcanic aeolian environment: Processes and impacts — A review
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Licence
dc.description.version Peer Reviewed
dc.identifier.journal Aeolian Research
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.aeolia.2016.01.004
dc.relation.url http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187596371530015X
dc.contributor.department Raunvísindadeild (HÍ)
dc.contributor.department Faculty of Physical Sciences (UI)
dc.contributor.school Auðlinda- og umhverfisdeild (LBHÍ)
dc.contributor.school Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
dc.contributor.school School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)

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