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Not so bad: avoidance and aversive discounting modulate threat appraisal in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex

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dc.contributor Háskólinn í Reykjavík (HR)
dc.contributor Reykjavík University (RU)
dc.contributor.author Schlund, Michael W.
dc.contributor.author Brewer, Adam T.
dc.contributor.author Richman, David M.
dc.contributor.author Magee, Sandy K.
dc.contributor.author Dymond, Simon
dc.date.accessioned 2018-11-28T14:39:22Z
dc.date.available 2018-11-28T14:39:22Z
dc.date.issued 2015-06-10
dc.identifier.citation Schlund, M. W., Brewer, A. T., Richman, D. M., Magee, S. K., & Dymond, S. (2015). Not so bad: avoidance and aversive discounting modulate threat appraisal in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00142
dc.identifier.issn 1662-5153
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/927
dc.description.abstract The dorsal anterior cingulate (adACC) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) play a central role in the discrimination and appraisal of threatening stimuli. Yet, little is known about what specific features of threatening situations recruit these regions and how avoidance may modulate appraisal and activation through prevention of aversive events. In this investigation, 30 healthy adults underwent functional neuroimaging while completing an avoidance task in which responses to an Avoidable CS+ threat prevented delivery of an aversive stimulus, but not to an Unavoidable CS+ threat. Extinction testing was also completed where CSs were presented without aversive stimulus delivery and an opportunity to avoid. The Avoidable CS+ relative to the Unavoidable CS+ was associated with reductions in ratings of negative valence, fear, and US expectancy and activation. Greater regional activation was consistently observed to the Unavoidable CS+ during avoidance, which declined during extinction. Individuals exhibiting greater aversive discounting—that is, those more avoidant of immediate monetary loss compared to a larger delayed loss—also displayed greater activation to the Unavoidable CS+, highlighting aversive discounting as a significant individual difference variable. These are the first results linking adACC/dmPFC reactivity to avoidance-based reductions of aversive events and modulation of activation by individual differences in aversive discounting.
dc.description.sponsorship The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
dc.format.extent 142
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Frontiers Media SA
dc.relation.ispartofseries Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience;9
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Avoidance
dc.subject Threat
dc.subject Fear
dc.subject Anterior cingulate
dc.subject Medial prefrontal cortex
dc.subject Loss discounting
dc.subject Anxiety
dc.subject Neuroimaging
dc.subject Kvíði
dc.subject Ótti
dc.subject Sálfræði
dc.subject Heilinn
dc.subject Psychology
dc.title Not so bad: avoidance and aversive discounting modulate threat appraisal in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license Copyright © 2015 Schlund, Brewer, Richman, Magee and Dymond. This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
dc.description.version Peer Reviewed
dc.identifier.journal Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
dc.identifier.doi 10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00142
dc.contributor.school Viðskiptadeild (HR)
dc.contributor.school School of Business (RU)

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