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Sjálfbærnimenntun í aðalnámskrá leik-, grunn- og framhaldsskóla 2011: samræmdar hugmyndir eða sundurlausar?

Sjálfbærnimenntun í aðalnámskrá leik-, grunn- og framhaldsskóla 2011: samræmdar hugmyndir eða sundurlausar?


Titill: Sjálfbærnimenntun í aðalnámskrá leik-, grunn- og framhaldsskóla 2011: samræmdar hugmyndir eða sundurlausar?
Aðrir titlar: Sustainability education in the 2011 Icelandic national curriculum guide for preschools, compulsory schools, and upper secondary schools: coherent or fragmented ideas?
Höfundur: Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir   orcid.org/0000-0002-8212-5944
Útgáfa: 2017-10-03
Tungumál: Íslenska
Umfang: 13 bls.
Háskóli/Stofnun: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
Svið: Menntavísindasvið (HÍ)
School of education (UI)
Birtist í: Netla ársrit 2017;
ISSN: 1670-0244
Efnisorð: Aðalnámskrár; Sjálfbærni; Grunnþættir menntunar
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/604

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Tilvitnun:

Ingólfur Ásgeir Jóhannesson(2017). Sjálfbærnimenntun í aðalnámskrá leik-, grunn- og framhaldsskóla 2011:Samræmdar hugmyndir eða sundurlausar? Netla – Veftímarit um uppeldi og menntun. Menntavísindasvið Háskóla Íslands. Sótt af http://netla.hi.is/greinar/2017/ryn/05.pdf

Útdráttur:

 
Sjálfbær þróun sem hugtak komst á dagskrá á síðustu árum 20. aldar á alþjóðlegum vettvangi og hér á landi. Þótt hugmyndir hennar væru kunnar skólafólki var það ekki fyrr en í aðalnámskrá leik-, grunn- og framhaldsskóla 2011 sem sjálfbærnimenntun komst fyrir alvöru á dagskrá í opinberri skólastefnu með því að sjálfbærni var gerð að einum af sex svokölluðum grunnþáttum menntunar. Í þessari grein er athugað hvernig hugmyndir um sjálfbærni í grunnþáttakafla aðalnámskrár 2011 eru útfærðar í sérnámskrám fyrir leik-, grunn- og framhaldsskóla til að meta hversu gott samræmi sé milli ólíkra hluta námskrárinnar. Fyrst var lesinn kaflinn um sjálfbærni til að rannsakandi áttaði sig á inntaki hans. Þá var útbúinn greiningarlykill með þremur spurningum og ein þeirra með þremur undirspurningum. Sérhlutar námskrár hvers skólastigs, þar með talinn greinahluti aðalnámskrár grunnskóla, voru lesnir með þessar spurningar í huga. Niðurstöður sýna að hugtökin sjálfbær þróun og sjálfbærni koma sjaldan fyrir í sérhlutum námskránna, oftast þó í greinasviðshluta aðalnámskrár grunnskóla. Hugmyndirnar um sjálfbærni virðast vera útfærðar á ólíkan hátt eftir skólastigum en einnig á ólíkan hátt í mismunandi greinum grunnskóla. Oft virðist útfærslan vera fremur tilviljunarkennd og hugmyndirnar sundurlausar miðað við það sem kemur fram í kaflanum um grunnþætti. Markvissustu dæmin eru í náttúrugreinum í grunnskóla þar sem sérstakur flokkur hæfniviðmiða er nefndur eftir lykilhugtakinu geta til aðgerða. Einnig eru hugmyndir um neytendafræðslu í anda grunnþáttanna víða í ólíkum námsgreinum grunnskólans.
 
The idea of sustainable development appeared on the international, as well as the Icelandic, agenda in the late 20th century, and the so-called Brundtland (1987) report is commonly referred to as its burgeoning beginning. In Iceland these ideas were known to educators early (see an overview by Stefán Bergmann et al., 2008), although it was not until the publication of the 2011 national curriculum for pre-, compulsory, and upper secondary schools that sustainability education received a central place in the curriculum as one of six fundamental pillars of education. This article examines whether ideas relating to sustainability are similar or different in the various sections of the curricula; that is a) the fundamental pillar section, which is the same for all three school levels, b) the different school-level specific parts, and c) the larger section on subject areas for the compulsory school. First, the fundamental pillars’ section was read and a curriculum analysis key in three parts derived from it to analyze other sections. The questions are the following: 1) Is sustainability or sustainable development mentioned in the school-level specific sections of the curricula, how often, and in what contexts? 2) Are the different spheres of sustainability education noted? Under that question, I searched for particular ideas that could be classified as belonging in one of the three spheres of sustainable development, as it is defined in the curriculum: a) Environment and nature: Are ecosystems and cycles of nature dealt with? Are the ecological footprint, environmental protection, climate change, and biodiversity among the topics? b) Social perspective (as in the official translation): Is intragenerational and transgenerational equality and welfare in focus? c) Economic factors: Is the use of natural resources “in a sensible manner” dealt with? Are economic growth, financial literacy, and comsumption in focus? 3) Is fostering the competence of children and teenagers to live and work in a democratic society a focal point? Is there an emphasis on children and teenagers being able to come to grips with diverse problems and controversial issues? Is action competence emphasized? (In Icelandic, this concept is geta til aðgerða. The official translation from Icelandic uses “capability for action” in the fundamental pillar text but action competence in the natural sciences subject area. This concept was invented by Danish scholars as handlekompetence, or in English, action competence, e.g., Jensen og Schnack, 1997). The school-level specific sections were read with these questions in mind; the paper version was read many times and all curricula were engine-searched for specific terms and phrases. The findings indicate that the concepts sustainable development and sustainability are not much in evidence in the school-level specific sections, except in the subject area section of the curriculum for compulsory schools. Ideas on sustainability tended to appear in various ways, depending on the school level, but differed also according to subject area of the compulsory school. The application of the terms under scrutiny appeared as incidental and fragmented in the different sections, compared to what was said in the fundamental pillar section. The natural sciences subject area seems an exception, including, for example, groups of competence criteria entitled Action competence and A healthy environment. Ideas relating to consumer education in the spirit of the fundamental pillars are to be found in a few of the compulsory school subject areas.
 

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