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Gildi í samskiptum og leik ungra leikskólabarna

Gildi í samskiptum og leik ungra leikskólabarna


Titill: Gildi í samskiptum og leik ungra leikskólabarna
Aðrir titlar: Values in young children’s interaction and play
Höfundur: Pálmadóttir, Hrönn
Útgáfa: 2017-12-28
Tungumál: Íslenska
Umfang: 15 bls.
Háskóli/Stofnun: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
Svið: Menntavísindasvið (HÍ)
School of education (UI)
Birtist í: Netla sérrit 2017;(Innsýn í leikskólastarf)
ISSN: 1670-0244
Efnisorð: Leikskólabörn; Gildismat; Leikur; Samskipti
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/600

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Tilvitnun:

Hrönn Pálmadóttir. (2017). Gildi í samskiptum og leik ungra leikskólabarna Netla – Veftímarit um uppeldi og menntun. Sérrit 2017 – Innsýn í leikskólastarf Menntavísindasvið Háskóla Íslands. Sótt af http://netla.hi.is/serrit/2017/innsyn_leikskolastarf/003.pdf

Útdráttur:

 
Markmið rannsóknarinnar var að kanna, út frá sjónarhorni barna á aldrinum eins til þriggja ára í einum leikskóla, hvernig gildi birtast í samskiptum þeirra í leik og hvernig börnin takast á við ágreining um gildi. Í greininni eru niðurstöður rannsóknarinnar ræddar í tengslum við gildamenntun í leikskóla. Rannsóknin fellur undir hugmyndir innan menntunarfræði ungra barna þar sem virkni og hæfni barna til að tjá sjónarmið sín eru í brennidepli. Jafnframt er byggt á kenningum innan fyrirbærafræði þar sem lögð er áhersla á að börn skapi merkingu með líkamlegri tjáningu. Gagna var aflað í frjálsum leik með myndbandsupptökum en auk þess voru vettvangsnótur ritaðar í rannsóknarferlinu. Ígrundun, siðferðilegar vangaveltur og spurningar eru hluti rannsóknar frá upphafi og í gegnum allt rannsóknarferlið. Niðurstöður rannsóknarinnar sýna fjögur samtvinnuð meginþemu og tjáningu barnanna á mikilvægum gildum í leiknum; (a) réttindi (b) umhyggja, (c) að tilheyra, (d) agi. Þemun tengjast aðallega tveimur sviðum gilda; annars vegar gildi sem beinast að einstaklingnum og hins vegar gildi sem snúast um barnahópinn eða starf í leikskólanum. Einnig birtist ágreiningur og mismunandi valdatengsl meðal barnanna þegar réttindi og viðurkennd gildi innan hópsins voru dregin í efa eða þeim hafnað. Í augum barnanna voru hinir fullorðnu hluti af þeirra daglega lífi og þau leituðu til þeirra eftir stuðningi í leiknum.
 
The aim of this study was to explore, from children’s perspectives, what values are important in play. Also how children resolve value conflicts that might occur. In the article, the findings are discussed in the context of value education in preschools. In the Icelandic national curriculum guidelines for preschools, emphasis is placed on children’s learning of democratic values through active participation and play (Aðalnámskrá leikskóla, 2011). Hence, the guidelines support the ideas of Hess (2009) which indicate that democracy is closely linked to daily interactions where children in schools learn democracy by doing. She also points out that conflicts between individual and social perspectives are a necessary part of developing democratic values in education (Hess, 2009). The study is placed within the discourse of early childhood education and care (ECEC), where children are considered active, competent, and able to express their views and meanings (Clark and Moss, 2005; Samningur Sameinuðu þjóðanna um réttindi barnsins [United Nations Convention on Children’s Rights], 1989). The research is inspired by phenomenological theories based on the notions that children communicate and express their feelings with bodily expressions, that through their interactions they learn about themselves and others (Merleau-Ponty, 1945/1962), and that play is considered a complex phenomenon originating in the movements of the body (Bujtendijk, 1933). Through complex interactive processes, play demands that children indicate their perspectives and intentions and at the same time respond to others’ perspectives. Thus, children communicate and express values about good and bad, right and wrong regarding their own and others’ actions and behaviours (Hrönn Pálmadóttir and Johansson, 2015; Johansson, 2011). Values are, therefore, intertwined in children’s preschool interactions and play. The phenomenological approach is grounded in qualitative research paradigms. The study was conducted with children aged one to three years, in two units of one preschool in Iceland. Data were gathered during a five-month period with observations by video recordings and field notes written during the research process. Informed consent was obtained from the municipal authorities, the preschool principal, the educators, the children and their parents. Children’s free play in the morning was chosen for data collection. A hermeneutics approach was used in interpretation in order to understand the children’s experiences from their own perspectives (Bengtson, 2013; Gadamer, 2004). Additionally, the analysis of the data was inspired by thematic research analyses described by Braun and Clarke (2006). Researchers have ethical obligations to the participants in a study, no matter what their age is. The researchers’ main obligations are to respect people’s integrity and humanity (Alderson, 2014). Thus, ethical questions are included in the research project from the very beginning and continue to inform it throughout the entire process. Acquiring the youngest children‘s assent can be problematic and demands ethical awareness. The researcher is responsible for interpreting children‘s expressions regarding their assent and dissent and pays attention to children‘s bodily communication (Dockett, Jóhanna Einarsdóttir and Perry, 2012; Løkken, 2012). The findings indicate that, in the eyes of the children, the interactions formed through play were both desirable and challenging. The centrality of the body was a predominant factor in children’s meaning-making. The communication and expression was built upon intersubjective processes. The findings reveal that the children saw free play as common ground for communicating and expressing values and value conflicts. Four intertwined themes occurred, showing children’s expression of important values in their play: (a) rights, (b) care, (c) belonging, and (d) discipline. These values were mostly connected to two value fields: the individual, and the group or daily life in the preschool. The children sought educators’ support in their play. Unequal power relations, appeared in children’s interactions, on occasions when they challenged or rejected values acknowledged by the group. In order to foster value education in preschool, the study reveals the importance of identifying conflicting perspectives in children’s play. The play sessions and preschool pedagogy should, therefore, provide children with ample opportunities and encouragement in creating their relationships and play.
 

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