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Samræðulestur: óformleg leið að læsi í leikskólum

Samræðulestur: óformleg leið að læsi í leikskólum


Titill: Samræðulestur: óformleg leið að læsi í leikskólum
Aðrir titlar: Dialogic reading: Informal pedagogy in early childhood literacy
Höfundur: Thordardottir, Thordis   orcid.org/0000-0002-0191-2592
Útgáfa: 2017-12-31
Tungumál: Íslenska
Umfang: 1-17
Háskóli/Stofnun: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
Svið: Menntavísindasvið (HÍ)
School of education (UI)
Birtist í: Netla sérrit 2017;(Innsýn í leikskólastarf)
ISSN: 1670-0244
Efnisorð: Leikskólastarf; Læsi; Lestrarkennsla; Byrjendalæsi
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/598

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Tilvitnun:

Þórdís Þorðardóttir. (2017). Samræðulestur: Óformleg leið að læsi í leikskólum Netla – Veftímarit um uppeldi og menntun. Sérrit 2017 – Innsýn í leikskólastarf Menntavísindasvið Háskóla Íslands. Sótt af http://netla.hi.is/serrit/2017/innsyn_leikskolastarf/001.pdf

Útdráttur:

 
Meginmarkmið þessarar greinar er að lýsa fyrirmyndardæmi um óformlegar aðferðir leikskólakennara við að efla áhuga leikskólabarna á rituðu máli, bæta orðaforða, skapa skilning á hugtökum og æfa börnin í að tjá hugsanir sínar í mæltu máli. Rannsóknarspurningarnar eru: Hvernig spurningar notuðu sex leikskólakennarar 68 barna á aldrinum fjögurra til fimm ára í samræðum um barnabókmenntir og afþreyingarefni? Hvernig brugðust börnin við spurningum kennaranna? Gögnin eru úr rannsókn á menningarlæsi leikskólabarna frá árunum 2006–2012. Árin 2010–11 voru tólf samræðustundir barna og kennara teknar upp á myndbönd í tveimur leikskólum í Reykjavík og viðtöl tekin við sex kennara. Á árunum 2012–13 voru gögnin endurkönnuð og sjónum beint að því hvernig spurnaraðferðum kennararnir beittu í samræðum við börnin og hvort og þá hvernig þær nýttust börnunum til að auka skilning sinn á tal- og ritmáli. Einnig var athugað hvernig kennararnir fjölluðu um fagmennsku sína í viðtölunum. Í ljós kom að spurnaraðferðir kennaranna féllu undir samræðulestur (e. dialogic reading) en í honum felst að börn og kennarar ræði saman um bækur og afþreyingarefni sem börnin hafa kynnst innan og utan leikskólans. Áhersla er á að börnin tjái sig um innihaldið á sínum eigin forsendum. Hlutverk kennara er að styðja frásagnir barnanna og ýta undir frásagnargleði þeirra. Niðurstöðurnar benda til þess að spurnarleiðir kennaranna hafi veitt börnunum tækifæri til að tjá sig um margvísleg málefni sem tengd voru sögunum sem til umræðu voru hverju sinni. Auk þess virtust spurnarleiðirnar skapa flestum börnunum tækifæri til að bæta orðskilning, auka orðaforða, efla skilning á sínu nánasta umhverfi og að tjá hugsanir sínar í mæltu máli.
 
Informal pedagogy involves child-centred social education and “here and now” oriented activities, as a way to help children to learn on their own terms. The current debate in Iceland reflects an increased interest in formal teaching and standardized testing in preschools, which comes at the cost of spontaneous or informal learning; thus it is important to understand how traditional (unprompted) early childhood education works in a preschool context. The primary aim of this study was to analyze whether and how six preschool teachers’ informal pedagogy motivated four and five-year-old children’s interest in texts and literacy in two Reykjavik preschools. This article focuses on preschool teachers’ informal ways of organizing conversations on literature and popular culture, familiar to the children. The teachers’ questions and children’s reactions are foregrounded in this discussion by emphasizing whether and how the teachers’ questions created opportunities for the children to express themselves and make their own meaning out from the discussion topic. The analysis is based on data from a study of preschool children’s cultural literacy from 2006-2012. According to Clarke and Cosette (2000) it has become common among researchers to use past data collection in a new way, as is done in this research. During the initial examination of the video data analysis, where the aim was first and foremost to understand the children’s knowledge of children’s literature and popular culture, a secondary result was that all the teachers put very similar questions to the children, unbeknownst to either group. This result evoked the researcher’s interest in preschool-teacher’s professional role in helping young children to construct emergent literacy, which forms the frame of analysis in this article. The theoretical framework has its foundation in theories of dialogic reading, which have been shown to have a positive effect on language development and emergent literacy. Dialogic reading is based on asking open questions, providing positive feedback, and encouraging young children to further express their experience, rather than to answer more specific leading questions. It relies on teachers’ and children’s conversations relating to books and popular culture, on the children’s terms. The teacher’s role is to support and encourage the children to enjoy the conversation in a creative way (Hargrave and Sénéchal, 2000; Riley & Reedy, 2003). The research questions are: What kind of questions did six preschool teachers use, in conversations on children’s literature and popular culture, with 4–5 year old children? How did the children in smaller groups react to the teachers’ questions? The research took place in two preschools in the greater Reykjavik area. The data involves twelve videotaped conversations, lasting from 20 to 35 minutes. The group sizes varied from 8 to 12 children and always included one teacher. To supplement this data semi-structured interviews were conducted with the teachers to gather their perspectives on the role of children’s literature in early childhood education. Then previous findings of the videotape analysis from 2012, on the children’s knowledge of the discussions topics, were compared to this newer analysis of the teachers’ way of leading the conversation. The analysis method used was qualitative content analysis, normally used in studies aiming at describing a phenomenon (Snape & Spencer, 2003). The teachers’ questions were divided into six categories: the story line; the characters; the characters’ relationships; fantasy or reality; reason and arguments. Within each category the following themes appeared: the time of the story, the author, the place of the story, the story line, and questions which motivate imagination and reasons; that is, what would happen if this character met a character from a different story. The findings indicate that most of the children seemed to enjoy the discussions. They explored such concepts as: appearance, characteristics, dispositions, relations, practices and circumstances of the characters. Furthermore, they discussed meanings of words and compared story lines with real life experience and developed an understanding of their closest environment. For example, they discussed the meaning of the concept “greed” (from an Icelandic folktale) and argued whether it meant “to be hungry” or “to want more than you needed”. Their conclusion was it meant “to want more than you need”. They compared real step-parents to the stepmother and stepsisters in the Cinderella tale, concluding that fairy tale step-parents differ from real step-parents.
 

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