Opin vísindi

Matarumhverfi við íþróttaiðkun barna: rannsóknarverkefni

Matarumhverfi við íþróttaiðkun barna: rannsóknarverkefni


Titill: Matarumhverfi við íþróttaiðkun barna: rannsóknarverkefni
Höfundur: Varðardóttir, Birna
Margeirsdóttir, Elísabet   orcid.org/0000-0002-6746-2926
Olafsdottir, Steingerdur   orcid.org/0000-0002-8955-2367
Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður
Útgáfa: 2017-12-31
Tungumál: Íslenska
Umfang: 1-25
Háskóli/Stofnun: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
Svið: Menntavísindasvið (HÍ)
School of education (UI)
Deild: Sport, Leisure Studies and Social Education (UI)
Íþrótta-, tómstunda- og þroskaþjálfadeild (HÍ)
Birtist í: Netla sérrit 2017;(Menntakvika 2017)
ISSN: 1670-0244
Efnisorð: Íþróttafélög; Börn; Foreldrar; Matarmenning; Framboð (hagfræði)
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/589

Skoða fulla færslu

Tilvitnun:

Birna Varðardóttir, Elísabet Margeirsdóttir, Steingerður Ólafsdóttir og Anna Sigríður Ólafsdóttir. (2017). Matarumhverfi við íþróttaiðkun barna: Rannsóknarverkefni Netla – Veftímarit um uppeldi og menntun: Sérrit 2017 – Menntavika 2017. Sótt af http://netla.hi.is/serrit/2017/menntavika_2017/002.pdf

Útdráttur:

 
Fjöldi íslenskra barna stundar æfingar hjá íþróttafélögum í frítíma sínum og mótast börnin á ýmsan hátt af umhverfi íþróttamiðstöðva og nágrennis. Markmið rannsóknarinnar var að rannsaka fæðuval 10–18 ára barna í tengslum við íþróttaæfingar þeirra og matarumhverfi hjá Ungmennafélaginu Aftureldingu (UMFA) í Mosfellsbæ. Bæjarfélagið Mosfellsbær hefur verið brautryðjandi sem heilsueflandi samfélag frá innleiðingu 2013. Leitast var við að varpa ljósi á það hvernig börn og foreldrar upplifa matarumhverfi og fæðuframboð innan íþróttamiðstöðvar félagsins, auk þess að kanna fæðuvenjur barna í tengslum við æfingar. Ljóst má vera að umhverfið er mikilvægur áhrifaþáttur fæðuvals. Tilgáta verkefnisins var tvíþætt: A) Að fæðuvenjur í tengslum við íþróttaiðkun barnanna mótist að nokkru leyti af framboði í veitingasölunni og framboðið hindri það hugsanlega að hægt sé að velja hollan mat. B) Markaðssetning og auglýsingar um hvers kyns óhollustu séu áberandi í matarumhverfinu og börn jafnt sem foreldrar upplifi það sem hindrun. Rannsóknin tók til 221 barns, 105 stúlkna og 116 drengja, í sjö greinum íþrótta hjá félaginu og foreldra þeirra (n=175). Notaðir voru tveir áþekkir spurningalistar og var annar ætlaður foreldrum en hinn börnum. Jafnframt gerðu rannsakendur úttekt á matarumhverfi, þar með talið auglýsingum, og fæðuframboði innan íþróttamiðstöðvarinnar. Samkvæmt niðurstöðunum einkenndist fæðuval iðkenda, í tengslum við íþróttaiðkun, af hollum eða frekar hollum valkostum. Fáir iðkendur nýttu sér það reglulega að kaupa mat í veitingasölu íþróttahússins í tengslum við æfingar. Um þriðja hvert foreldri og fjórða hvert barn vildu sjá breytingar á matarumhverfi félagsins. Foreldrar litu á mat að heiman, þjálfara og vini sem helstu hvata til að borða hollan mat í tengslum við æfingar. Helstu hvatar að mati barna voru framboð á mat að heiman og nægur tími. Að mati foreldra voru helstu hindranir fyrir því að borða hollan mat tímaskortur, verð, aðstaða og framboð í matsölu félagsins. Orkuríkir en næringarsnauðir valkostir einkenndu framboð á matvöru og drykk í veitingasölu íþróttahússins. Auglýsingar um mat og drykk voru flestar í aðalsal félagsins. Af niðurstöðunum má álykta að mikilvægt sé að endurskoða bæði aðstöðu til að matast og framboð á mat og drykk í íþróttamiðstöðinni og mæta þannig óskum foreldra og barna. Fæðutengdar auglýsingar voru mjög áberandi í húsnæði félagsins en í þessari rannsókn var ekki metið hvort auglýsingarnar sem slíkar hefðu áhrif á fæðuval barnanna. Æskilegt væri að kanna hugsanleg áhrif betur, en um leið ætti það að vera stefna íþróttafélaga þar sem börn stunda reglulegar æfingar að draga úr áreiti með auglýsingum.
 
Many Icelandic children are engaged in organized sports during leisure time. These children are influenced by factors in the sporting environment and this has been found to be an important setting for health promotion which is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and improve it. The determinants of health are. in addition to individual characteristics and behaviours, the social -, economic - , and physical environment. A healthy nutrition environment increases the possibilities of accessing healthy food and beverages. The aim of the study was to observe food choices among 10-18 year old children and the food environment of their sports club, Ungmennafélagið Afturelding (UMFA), located in the municipality of Mosfellsbær. The municipality has been a pioneer as a health promoting community since 2013. The approach aimed to gain insight into how the food environment of the sports center can impact food choices of children in sports and also to explore parents’ and children’s perception of food and drinks available at the center. The hypotheses were: A) that food choices in relation to children’s sports were limited by availability in the sports center and that the supply was a possible hindrance for choosing healthy foods. B) that food-related marketing and advertisements were prominent in the food environment and that this would be experienced by both children and parents as a hindrance to choosing healthy foods. This cross-sectional study involved 221 children, 105 girls and 116 boys, participating in seven different sports (soccer, handball, gymnastics, athletics, volleyball, taekwondo and karate) and their parents (n=175). Two similar questionnaires were used, one for parents and one for children. The questionnaires included food frequency questionnaires and questions on the food environment at the sports center. Parents filled in the questionnaire online, while children filled in their questionnaire on paper during training. Observational assessment of the food environment was also conducted, including registration of the number and type of advertisements the children were exposed to and food items sold at the sports center. The results show that food choices associated with training seemed rather healthy and nutritious. Few children bought meals on a regular basis at the sports center, but more girls (15%) than boys (9%) did so occassionally. Few children had their meals at the sports center on a regular basis, again more girls (12%) than boys (4%). When asked about the food environment, the children were more positive towards the facilities than the parents, as 40% of the children reported that the facilities were good or very good, compared to 18% of the parents. Roughly one third of parents and one fourth of children said that changes were needed. Parents considered food available at home, as well as the influence of coaches and friends, as major incentives for healthy eating before and after training. Children regarded food available at home and enough time as major incentives. According to parents, the major hindrances were lack of time, price, facilities, and types of food available at the sports center. Observational assessment of the food environment concluded that most of the food and drinks sold at the center were energy dense and nutritionally poor and that food advertisements were most prominent in the main hall. It can be concluded that it is important to reconsider facilities and the variety of foods and drinks sold at the sports centre, since this would be in line with the wishes of both children and parents. Increased availability of healthy foods at sports centers could increase the consumption of those, as it is part of health promotion to make the healthy choice the easy choice. The researchers see sports centers as a pedagogical environment where the supply of healthy foods should be increased at the cost of the energy dense and nutritionally poor food items more prominent at the center. Coaches were among the major incentives for the children’s healthy eating, according to the parents, consequently the coaches’ role in health promoting activities at sports clubs should be emphasized. The results of this study can be used as a basis for health promotion initiatives and the development of nutritional policies for sports clubs. Food-related advertisments were readily visible, but their impact on children’s food choices was not studied. Further research is recommended and sports centers and teams should also aim to minimize advertising stimuli.
 

Leyfi:

CC BY 4.0

Skrár

Þetta verk birtist í eftirfarandi safni/söfnum:


Fletta

Um vefinn

Reikningurinn minn