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Surveillance of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Iceland

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dc.contributor Háskóli Íslands
dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor.author Alfreðsson, Matthías S.
dc.contributor.author Ólafsson, Erling
dc.contributor.author Eydal, Matthías
dc.contributor.author Unnsteinsdóttir, Ester Rut
dc.contributor.author Hansford, Kayleigh
dc.contributor.author Wint, William
dc.contributor.author Alexander, Neil
dc.contributor.author Medlock, Jolyon M.
dc.date.accessioned 2018-01-26T15:09:47Z
dc.date.available 2018-01-26T15:09:47Z
dc.date.issued 2017-10-10
dc.identifier.citation Alfredsson, M., Olafsson, E., Eydal, M., Unnsteinsdottir, E. R., Hansford, K., Wint, W., . . . Medlock, J. M. (2017). Surveillance of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Iceland. Parasites & Vectors, 10(1), 466. doi:10.1186/s13071-017-2375-2
dc.identifier.issn 1756-3305
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/541
dc.description.abstract Background: Ixodes ricinus is a three-host tick, a principal vector of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) and one of the main vectors of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus. Iceland is located in the North Atlantic Ocean with subpolar oceanic climate. During the past 3–4 decades, average temperature has increased, supporting more favourable conditions for ticks. Reports of I. ricinus have increased in recent years. If these ticks were able to establish in a changing climate, Iceland may face new threats posed by tick-borne diseases. Methods: Active field surveillance by tick flagging was conducted at 111 sites around Iceland from August 2015 to September 2016. Longworth mammal traps were used to trap Apodemus sylvaticus in southwestern and southern Iceland. Surveillance on tick importation by migratory birds was conducted in southeastern Iceland, using bird nets and a Heligoland trap. Vulpes lagopus carcasses from all regions of the country were inspected for ticks. In addition, existing and new passive surveillance data from two institutes have been merged and are presented. Continental probability of presence models were produced. Boosted Regression Trees spatial modelling methods and its predictions were assessed against reported presence. Results: By field sampling 26 questing I. ricinus ticks (7 males, 3 females and 16 nymphs) were collected from vegetation from three locations in southern and southeastern Iceland. Four ticks were found on migratory birds at their arrival in May 2016. A total of 52 A. sylvaticus were live-trapped but no ticks were found nor on 315 V. lagopus carcasses. Passive surveillance data collected since 1976, reports further 214 I. ricinus ticks from 202 records, with an increase of submissions in recent years. The continental probability of presence model correctly predicts approximately 75% of the recorded presences, but fails to predict a fairly specific category of recorded presence in areas where the records are probably opportunistic and not likely to lead to establishment. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first finding of questing I. ricinus ticks in Iceland. The species could possibly be established locally in Iceland in low abundance, although no questing larvae have yet been detected to confirm established populations. Submitted tick records have increased recently, which may reflect an increase in exposure, or in interest in ticks. Furthermore, the amount of records on dogs, cats and humans indicate that ticks were acquired locally, presenting a local biting risk. Tick findings on migratory birds highlight a possible route of importation. Obtaining questing larvae is now a priority to confirm that I. ricinus populations are established in Iceland. Further surveys on wild mammals (e.g. Rangifer tarandus), livestock and migratory birds are recommended to better understand their role as potential hosts for I. ricinus.
dc.description.sponsorship Work was carried out under VectorNet, a European network for sharing data on the geographic distribution of arthropod vectors, transmitting human and animal disease agents (framework contract OC/EFSA/AHAW/2013/02-FWC1) funded by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Centre for Disease prevention and Control (ECDC). JM is also partly funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Environmental Change and Health at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine in partnership with Public Health England (PHE), and in collaboration with the University of Exeter, University College London, and the Met Office; and partly funded by the NIHR HPRU on Emerging Infections and Zoonoses at the University of Liverpool in partnership with PHE and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Springer Nature
dc.relation.ispartofseries Parasites & Vectors;10(1)
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Parasitology
dc.subject Infectious Diseases
dc.subject Tick
dc.subject Ixodes ricinus
dc.subject Iceland
dc.subject Skjaldmaurar
dc.subject Skógarmítill
dc.title Surveillance of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Iceland
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
dc.description.version Peer Reviewed
dc.identifier.journal Parasites & Vectors
dc.identifier.doi 10.1186/s13071-017-2375-2
dc.relation.url http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/s13071-017-2375-2.pdf
dc.contributor.department Tilraunastöð í meinafræði að Keldum (HÍ)
dc.contributor.department Institute for Experimental Pathology, Keldur (UI)

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