Opin vísindi

Lack of behavioural responses of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) indicate limited effectiveness of sonar mitigation

Show simple item record

dc.contributor Háskóli Íslands
dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor.author Wensveen, Paul
dc.contributor.author Kvadsheim, Petter H.
dc.contributor.author Lam, Frans-Peter A.
dc.contributor.author von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M.
dc.contributor.author Sivle, Lise D.
dc.contributor.author Visser, Fleur
dc.contributor.author Curé, Charlotte
dc.contributor.author Tyack, Peter L.
dc.contributor.author Miller, Patrick J. O.
dc.date.accessioned 2017-12-20T09:05:10Z
dc.date.available 2017-12-20T09:05:10Z
dc.date.issued 2017-11-15
dc.identifier.citation Wensveen, P. J., Kvadsheim, P. H., Lam, F.-P. A., von Benda-Beckmann, A. M., Sivle, L. D., Visser, F., . . . Miller, P. J. O. (2017). Lack of behavioural responses of humpback whales (<em>Megaptera novaeangliae</em>) indicate limited effectiveness of sonar mitigation. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 220(22), 4150-4161. doi:10.1242/jeb.161232
dc.identifier.issn 0022-0949
dc.identifier.issn 1477-9145 (eISSN)
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/485
dc.description.abstract Exposure to underwater sound can cause permanent hearing loss and other physiological effects in marine animals. To reduce this risk, naval sonars are sometimes gradually increased in intensity at the start of transmission (‘ramp-up’). Here, we conducted experiments in which tagged humpback whales were approached with a ship to test whether a sonar operation preceded by ramp-up reduced three risk indicators – maximum sound pressure level (SPLmax), cumulative sound exposure level (SELcum) and minimum source–whale range (Rmin) – compared with a sonar operation not preceded by ramp-up. Whales were subject to one no-sonar control session and either two successive ramp-up sessions (RampUp1, RampUp2) or a ramp-up session (RampUp1) and a full-power session (FullPower). Full-power sessions were conducted only twice; for other whales we used acoustic modelling that assumed transmission of the full-power sequence during their no-sonar control. Averaged over all whales, risk indicators in RampUp1 (n=11) differed significantly from those in FullPower (n=12) by −3.0 dB (SPLmax), −2.0 dB (SELcum) and +168 m (Rmin), but not significantly from those in RampUp2 (n=9). Only five whales in RampUp1, four whales in RampUp2 and none in FullPower or control sessions avoided the sound source. For RampUp1, we found statistically significant differences in risk indicators between whales that avoided the sonar and whales that did not: −4.7 dB (SPLmax), −3.4 dB (SELcum) and +291 m (Rmin). In contrast, for RampUp2, these differences were smaller and not significant. This study suggests that sonar ramp-up has a positive but limited mitigative effect for humpback whales overall, but that ramp-up can reduce the risk of harm more effectively in situations when animals are more responsive and likely to avoid the sonar, e.g. owing to novelty of the stimulus, when they are in the path of an approaching sonar ship.
dc.description.sponsorship his work was supported by the Office of Naval Research [N00014-10-1-0355], The Netherlands Ministry of Defence, Norwegian Ministry of Defence and French Ministry of Defence. Additional support was provided through a PhD studentship withmatched funding from The Netherlands Ministry of Defence and the Natural Environment Research Council [NE/J500276/1 to P.J.W.]; and the MASTS (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland) pooling initiative to P.L.T. MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council [HR09011] and contributing institutions.
dc.format.extent 4150-4161
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher The Company of Biologists
dc.relation.ispartofseries The Journal of Experimental Biology;220(22)
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Behavioural effects
dc.subject Hearing loss
dc.subject Naval sonar
dc.subject Baleen whale
dc.subject Anthropogenic noise
dc.subject Ramp-up
dc.subject Hnúfubakur
dc.subject Skíðishvalir
dc.subject Hávaði
dc.subject Heyrnarskerðing
dc.title Lack of behavioural responses of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) indicate limited effectiveness of sonar mitigation
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is properly attributed.
dc.description.version Peer Reviewed
dc.identifier.journal The Journal of Experimental Biology
dc.identifier.doi 10.1242/jeb.161232
dc.contributor.department Líf- og umhverfisvísindadeild (HÍ)
dc.contributor.department Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences (UI)
dc.contributor.school Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
dc.contributor.school School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)

Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record