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Avian abundance and communities in areas revegetated with exotic versus native plant species

Avian abundance and communities in areas revegetated with exotic versus native plant species


Titill: Avian abundance and communities in areas revegetated with exotic versus native plant species
Aðrir titlar: Þéttleiki og samfélög fugla á svæðum sem hafa verið grædd upp með framandi eða innlendum plöntutegundum
Höfundur: Davíðsdóttir, Brynja
Gunnarsson, Tomas Gretar   orcid.org/0000-0001-7692-0637
Halldórsson, Guðmundur
Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.   orcid.org/0000-0002-4784-5233
Útgáfa: 2016
Tungumál: Enska
Umfang: 21-37
Háskóli/Stofnun: Landbúnaðarháskóli Íslands
Agricultural University of Iceland
Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
Deild: Auðlinda- og umhverfisdeild (LBHÍ)
Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences (AUI)
Rannsóknasetur Suðurlandi (HÍ)
Research Centre in South Iceland (UI)
Birtist í: IAS;29
ISSN: 2298-786X
DOI: 10.16886/IAS.2016.03
Efnisorð: Fuglar; Ecological restoration; Vistheimt
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/466

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Tilvitnun:

Brynja Davidsdottir, Tomas Gretar Gunnarsson, Gudmundur Halldorsson and Bjarni D. Sigurdsson. 2016. Avian abundance and communities in areas revegetated with exotic versus native plant species. Icelandic Agricultural Sciences 29, 21-37, doi: 10.16886/IAS.2016.03

Útdráttur:

 
Degradation of ecosystems and introductions of invasive species pose a threat to global biodiversity. Ecosystem restoration and revegetation actions are important for amending habitat loss and for the protection of species of plants and animals. Iceland has the highest rate of soil erosion and desertification in Northern Europe and counteractions to erosion and revegetation measures have taken place for over a century. We studied the effect of revegetation on the density and composition of birds and invertebrate abundance in 26 survey areas comparing: a) unvegetated eroded areas, b) native heathlands restored on eroded land, and c) revegetation by the introduced and exotic Nootka lupin (Lupinus nootkatensis) on eroded land. Birds were counted on transects and invertebrates sampled with a sweep net. Both revegetation methods greatly increased the abundance of birds. The highest total numbers of invertebrates and birds were recorded on land revegetated with Nootka lupin. On average 31 birds km-2 were recorded on barren land, 337 on heathland and 627 in Nootka lupin. Bird species composition differed between the two revegetation methods. Restored heathland provided habitat for waders of internationally decreasing populations, whereas Nootka lupin stands harboured more common bird species. Golden Plover (Pluvialis apricaria) and Dunlin (Calidris alpina) were most common on restored heathland, while Snipe (Gallinago gallinago) and Meadow Pipit (Anthus pratensis) were most common in Nootka lupine. The abundance of birds was positively correlated with that of invertebrates. The abundance of different bird species differed by successional stage in each habitat. The study showed the generally positive effects of revegetation on animal biodiversity and also how different revegetation methods produce different trajectories of ecosystem development.
 
Hnignun vistkerfa og dreifing ágengra tegunda ógna líffræðilegum fjölbreytileika á heimsvísu. Vistheimt og landgræðsla eru mikilvægar aðgerðir til að endurheimta töpuð vistkerfi. Hvergi í Norður-Evrópu hefur jarðvegseyðing og eyðimerkurmyndun verið hraðari en á Íslandi. Í þessari rannsókn voru könnuð áhrif mismunandi landgræðsluaðgerða á þéttleika og tegundasamsetningu fugla og á fjölda smádýra. Rannsóknirnar voru gerðar á 26 stöðum á landinu. Á hverjum stað voru borin saman; a) óuppgrætt svæði, b) endurheimt mólendi og c) land sem hafði verið grætt upp með alaskalúpínu (Lupinus nootkatensis). Á óuppgræddu landi var að meðaltali 31 fugl á km2, 337 á endurheimtu mólendi og 627 á landi sem hafði verið grætt upp með lúpínu. Þéttleiki fugla hafði jákvæða fylgni við fjölda smádýra. Tegundasamsetning fugla var ólík eftir uppgræðsluaðferðum. Í endurheimtu mólendi var mest um vaðfugla af tegundum sem er að hnigna á heimsvísu, en í lúpínu var meira um algengari tegundir. Heiðlóa og lóuþræll voru algengustu tegundirnar í endurheimtu mólendi, en hrossagaukur og þúfutittlingur í lúpínu. Þéttleiki sumra fuglategunda virtist vera háður framvindustigi landgræðslusvæða. Þessi rannsókn sýnir að landgræðsla eykur líffræðilega fjölbreytni dýrategunda, en mismunandi landgræðsluaðgerðir leiða til mismunandi þróunar vistkerfanna.
 

Athugasemdir:

This paper was prepared as a part of the M.Sc. thesis of the first author at the Agricultural University of Iceland. We are grateful for the contribution of The Icelandic Soil Conservation Service, Náttúrusjóður Pálma Jónssonar and Kvískerjasjóður to this project. We thank the employees of The Icelandic Soil Conservation Service and Icelandic Institute of Natural History who contributed with their help and advice.

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