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Satellite detection, long-range transport, and air quality impacts of volcanic sulfur dioxide from the 2014-2015 flood lava eruption at Bárðarbunga (Iceland)

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dc.contributor Háskóli Íslands
dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor.author Schmidt, Anja
dc.contributor.author Leadbetter, Susan
dc.contributor.author Theys, Nicolas
dc.contributor.author Carboni, Elisa
dc.contributor.author Witham, Claire S.
dc.contributor.author Stevenson, John A.
dc.contributor.author Birch, Cathryn E.
dc.contributor.author Thordarson, Thorvaldur
dc.contributor.author Turnock, Steven
dc.contributor.author Barsotti, Sara
dc.contributor.author Delaney, Lin
dc.contributor.author Feng, Wuhu
dc.contributor.author Grainger, Roy G.
dc.contributor.author Hort, Matthew C.
dc.contributor.author Höskuldsson, Ármann
dc.contributor.author Ialongo, Iolanda
dc.contributor.author Ilyinskaya, Evgenia
dc.contributor.author Jóhannsson, Þorsteinn
dc.contributor.author Kenny, Patrick
dc.contributor.author Mather, Tamsin A.
dc.contributor.author Richards, Nigel A. D.
dc.contributor.author Shepherd, Janet
dc.date.accessioned 2017-10-25T15:01:12Z
dc.date.available 2017-10-25T15:01:12Z
dc.date.issued 2015-09-23
dc.identifier.citation Schmidt, A., S. Leadbetter, N. Theys, E. Carboni, C. S. Witham, J. A. Stevenson, C. E. Birch, T. Thordarson, S. Turnock, S. Barsotti, et al. (2015), Satellite detection, long-range transport, and air quality impacts of volcanic sulfur dioxide from the 2014–2015 flood lava eruption at Bárðarbunga (Iceland), J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 9739–9757, doi:10.1002/2015JD023638.
dc.identifier.issn 2169-897X
dc.identifier.issn 2169-8996 (eISSN)
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/440
dc.description.abstract The 2014–2015 Bárðarbunga-Veiðivötn fissure eruption at Holuhraun produced about 1.5 km3 of lava, making it the largest eruption in Iceland in more than 200 years. Over the course of the eruption, daily volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions exceeded daily SO2 emissions from all anthropogenic sources in Europe in 2010 by at least a factor of 3. We present surface air quality observations from across Northern Europe together with satellite remote sensing data and model simulations of volcanic SO2 for September 2014. We show that volcanic SO2 was transported in the lowermost troposphere over long distances and detected by air quality monitoring stations up to 2750 km away from the source. Using retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), we calculate an average daily SO2 mass burden of 99 ± 49 kilotons (kt) of SO2 from OMI and 61 ± 18 kt of SO2 from IASI for September 2014. This volcanic burden is at least a factor of 2 greater than the average SO2 mass burden between 2007 and 2009 due to anthropogenic emissions from the whole of Europe. Combining the observational data with model simulations using the United Kingdom Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment model, we are able to constrain SO2 emission rates to up to 120 kilotons per day (kt/d) during early September 2014, followed by a decrease to 20–60 kt/d between 6 and 22 September 2014, followed by a renewed increase to 60–120 kt/d until the end of September 2014. Based on these fluxes, we estimate that the eruption emitted a total of 2.0 ± 0.6 Tg of SO2 during September 2014, in good agreement with ground-based remote sensing and petrological estimates. Although satellite-derived and model-simulated vertical column densities of SO2 agree well, the model simulations are biased low by up to a factor of 8 when compared to surface observations of volcanic SO2 on 6–7 September 2014 in Ireland. These biases are mainly due to relatively small horizontal and vertical positional errors in the simulations of the volcanic plume occurring over transport distances of thousands of kilometers. Although the volcanic air pollution episodes were transient and lava-dominated volcanic eruptions are sporadic events, the observations suggest that (i) during an eruption, volcanic SO2 measurements should be assimilated for near real-time air quality forecasting and (ii) existing air quality monitoring networks should be retained or extended to monitor SO2 and other volcanic pollutants.
dc.description.sponsorship School of Earth and Environment (University of Leeds) UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) NE/I015612/1 Met Office Academic Partnership NERC NE/M021130/1 COMET
dc.format.extent 9739-9757
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Wiley-Blackwell
dc.relation.ispartofseries Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres;120(18)
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Holuhraun eruption
dc.subject Bárðarbunga eruption
dc.subject Volcanic sulfur dioxide
dc.subject Air pollution
dc.subject Satellite detection
dc.subject Volcanic hazards
dc.subject Eldgos
dc.subject Brennisteinsdíoxíð
dc.subject Loftmengun
dc.subject Gervitungl
dc.title Satellite detection, long-range transport, and air quality impacts of volcanic sulfur dioxide from the 2014-2015 flood lava eruption at Bárðarbunga (Iceland)
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
dc.description.version Peer Reviewed
dc.identifier.journal Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
dc.identifier.doi 10.1002/2015JD023638
dc.contributor.department Jarðvísindadeild (HÍ)
dc.contributor.department Faculty of Earth Sciences (UI)
dc.contributor.school Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
dc.contributor.school School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)

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