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Carbon Footprint of Inbound Tourism to Iceland: A Consumption-Based Life-Cycle Assessment including Direct and Indirect Emissions

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dc.contributor Háskóli Íslands
dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor.author Sharp, Hannah
dc.contributor.author Grundius, Josefine
dc.contributor.author Heinonen, Jukka
dc.date.accessioned 2017-09-18T13:36:14Z
dc.date.available 2017-09-18T13:36:14Z
dc.date.issued 2016-11-08
dc.identifier.citation Sharp, H.; Grundius, J.; Heinonen, J. Carbon Footprint of Inbound Tourism to Iceland: A Consumption-Based Life-Cycle Assessment including Direct and Indirect Emissions. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1147. doi:10.3390/su8111147
dc.identifier.issn 2071-1050
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/396
dc.description.abstract The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by tourism have been studied from several perspectives, but few studies exist that include all direct and indirect emissions, particularly those from aviation. In this study, an input/output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA) method is developed to assess the consumption-based carbon footprint of the average tourist including direct and indirect emissions. The total inbound tourism-related GHG emissions are also calculated within a certain region. As a demonstration of the method, the full carbon footprint of an average tourist is assessed as well as the total GHG emissions induced by tourism to Iceland over the period of 2010–2015, with the presented approach applicable in other contexts as well. Iceland provides an interesting case due to three features: (1) the tourism sector in Iceland is the fastest-growing industry in the country with an annual growth rate of over 20% over the past five years; (2) almost all tourists arrive by air; and (3) the country has an almost emissions-free energy industry and an import-dominated economy, which emphasise the role of the indirect emissions. According to the assessment, the carbon footprint for the average tourist is 1.35 tons of CO2-eq, but ranges from 1.1 to 3.2 tons of CO2-eq depending on the distance travelled by air. Furthermore, this footprint is increasing due to the rise in average flight distances travelled to reach the country. The total GHG emissions caused by tourism in Iceland have tripled from approximately 600,000 tons of CO2-eq in 2010 to 1,800,000 tons in 2015. Aviation accounts for 50%–82% of this impact (depending on the flight distance) underlining the importance of air travel, especially as tourism-related aviation is forecasted to grow significantly in the near future. From a method perspective, the carbon footprinting application presented in the study would seem to provide an efficient way to study both the direct and indirect emissions and to provide new insights and information to enable the development of appropriate GHG mitigation policies in the tourism sector.
dc.description.sponsorship Academy of Finland (Grant 286747)
dc.format.extent 1147
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher MDPI AG
dc.relation.ispartofseries Sustainability;8(11)
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Carbon footprint
dc.subject Greenhouse gas
dc.subject Lifecycle assessment
dc.subject Tourism
dc.subject Transport
dc.subject Aviation
dc.subject Gróðurhúsalofttegundir
dc.subject Ferðaþjónusta
dc.subject Samgöngur
dc.subject Flug
dc.title Carbon Footprint of Inbound Tourism to Iceland: A Consumption-Based Life-Cycle Assessment including Direct and Indirect Emissions
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
dc.description.version Peer Reviewed
dc.identifier.journal Sustainability
dc.identifier.doi 10.3390/su8111147
dc.contributor.department Umhverfis- og byggingarverkfræðideild (HÍ)
dc.contributor.department Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering (UI)
dc.contributor.school Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
dc.contributor.school School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)

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