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Societal Culture in Iceland and Lithuania: Managerial Implications

Societal Culture in Iceland and Lithuania: Managerial Implications

Title: Societal Culture in Iceland and Lithuania: Managerial Implications
Author: Minelgaite, Inga   orcid.org/0000-0002-4026-3222
Edvardsson, Ingi Runar   orcid.org/0000-0002-1167-3994
Littrell, Romie F.
Date: 2017-04
Language: English
Scope: 215824401770402
University/Institute: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
School: Félagsvísindasvið (HÍ)
School of Social Sciences (UI)
Department: Viðskiptafræðideild (HÍ)
Faculty of Business Administration (UI)
Series: Sage Open;7(2)
ISSN: 2158-2440
DOI: 10.1177/2158244017704023
Subject: Societal culture; Iceland; Lithuania; Management; Hofstede’s dimensions; VSM08; Menning; Ísland; Litháen; Stjórnun
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/327

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Snaebjornsson, I. M., Edvardsson, I. R., & Littrell, R. F. (2017). Societal Culture in Iceland and Lithuania: Managerial Implications. SAGE Open, 7(2), 2158244017704023. doi:doi:10.1177/2158244017704023


This article contributes to cross-cultural management literature, by providing empirical data from two underresearched countries, to serve in the future as benchmark cultural shift research. Furthermore, it illustrates not only the insufficiency of mare statement of cultural dimension difference/similarities but also a need to contextualize them. Results indicate that Icelandic and Lithuanian societal cultures are different on three out of seven of Hofstede’s dimensions; however, these differences have considerable effect on management practices. Results also present how a similar score of the same dimension fails to explain big differences within societies regarding a particular aspect (e.g. gender gap) and suggest that societal cultural differences have implications on management practices regarding work–life balance, motivational system, organizational structure, and level of formalization. Icelanders will put more importance on leisure and will feel happier in general, whereas Lithuanians will have higher work ethics. Lithuanians will be inclined to higher need for achievement (particularly for expatriate management). More structure, formalization, hierarchy, and direct following of the regulations can be expected in Lithuania. This contribution fills the gap in the literature by comparing societal cultures of two countries that have been neglected in cross-cultural research. Both countries are undergoing societal changes and the results of this research can serve in the future as a benchmark for indication of cultural swift. Furthermore, this article outlines the practical implications of societal cultural differences for management.


This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

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