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When the noise goes on: received sound energy predicts sperm whale responses to both intermittent and continuous navy sonar

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dc.contributor Háskóli Íslands
dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor.author Isojunno, Saana
dc.contributor.author Wensveen, Paul
dc.contributor.author Lam, Frans-Peter A.
dc.contributor.author Kvadsheim, Petter H.
dc.contributor.author von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M.
dc.contributor.author Martín López, Lucía M.
dc.contributor.author Kleivane, Lars
dc.contributor.author Siegal, Eilidh M.
dc.contributor.author Miller, Patrick J. O.
dc.date.accessioned 2021-01-18T14:28:06Z
dc.date.available 2021-01-18T14:28:06Z
dc.date.issued 2020-02-27
dc.identifier.citation Isojunno, S., Wensveen, P.J., Lam, F.-P.A., Kvadsheim, P.H., Von Benda-Beckmann, A.M., Martín López, L.M., Kleivane, L., Siegal, E.M., Miller, P.J.O., 2020. When the noise goes on: received sound energy predicts sperm whale responses to both intermittent and continuous navy sonar. The Journal of Experimental Biology 223, jeb219741. doi:10.1242/jeb.219741
dc.identifier.issn 0022-0949
dc.identifier.issn 1477-9145 (eISSN)
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/2387
dc.description Publisher's version (útgefin grein)
dc.description.abstract Anthropogenic noise sources range from intermittent to continuous, with seismic and navy sonar technology moving towards nearcontinuous transmissions. Continuous active sonar (CAS) may be used at a lower amplitude than traditional pulsed active sonar (PAS), but potentially with greater cumulative sound energy. We conducted at-sea experiments to contrast the effects of navy PAS versus CAS on sperm whale behaviour using animal-attached sound- and movement-recording tags (n=16 individuals) in Norway. Changes in foraging effort and proxies for foraging success and cost during sonar and control exposures were assessed while accounting for baseline variation [individual effects, time of day, bathymetry and blackfish ( pilot/killer whale) presence] in generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs). We found no reduction in time spent foraging during exposures to medium-level PAS (MPAS) transmitted at the same peak amplitude as CAS. In contrast, we found similar reductions in foraging during CAS (d.f.=1, F=8.0, P=0.005) and higher amplitude PAS (d.f.=1, F=20.8, P<0.001) when received at similar energy levels integrated over signal duration. These results provide clear support for sound energy over amplitude as the response driver. We discuss the importance of exposure context and the need to measure cumulative sound energy to account for intermittent versus more continuous sources in noise impact assessments.
dc.description.sponsorship This work was supported by the UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, The Netherlands Ministry of Defence, French Ministry of Defence, and US Navy Living Marine Resources program (contract No. N39430-17-C-1935). Open access funding provided by the University of St Andrews. Deposited in PMC for immediate release.
dc.format.extent jeb219741
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher The Company of Biologists
dc.relation.ispartofseries The Journal of Experimental Biology;223(7)
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Anthropogenic noise
dc.subject Continuous active sonar
dc.subject DTAG
dc.subject Intermittent sound
dc.subject Time budget
dc.subject Time-series model
dc.subject Búrhvalur
dc.subject Hvalir
dc.subject Hljóð
dc.title When the noise goes on: received sound energy predicts sperm whale responses to both intermittent and continuous navy sonar
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons AttributionLicense (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use,distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is properly attributed.
dc.description.version Peer Reviewed
dc.identifier.journal Journal of Experimental Biology
dc.identifier.doi 10.1242/jeb.219741
dc.relation.url https://jeb.biologists.org/content/223/7/jeb219741
dc.contributor.department Líf- og umhverfisvísindadeild (HÍ)
dc.contributor.department Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences (UI)
dc.contributor.school Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
dc.contributor.school School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)

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