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Functional Evolution of a cis-Regulatory Module

Functional Evolution of a cis-Regulatory Module

Title: Functional Evolution of a cis-Regulatory Module
Author: Ludwig, Michael Z
Palsson, Arnar   orcid.org/0000-0002-6525-8112
Alekseeva, Elena
Bergman, Casey M
Nathan, Janaki
Kreitman, Martin
Date: 2005-03-15
Language: English
Scope: e93
University/Institute: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
School: Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)
Department: Líf- og umhverfisvísindadeild (HÍ)
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences (UI)
Series: Plos Biology;3(4)
ISSN: 1545-7885
1545-7885 (e-ISSN)
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030093
Subject: Biochemistry; Genetics and Molecular Biology; Agricultural and Biological Sciences; Evolution; Lífefnafræði; Erfðafræði; Sameindalíffræði; Þróun lífsins
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/233

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Ludwig MZ, Palsson A, Alekseeva E, Bergman CM, Nathan J, Kreitman M (2005) Functional Evolution of a cis-Regulatory Module. PLoS Biol 3(4): e93. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030093


Lack of knowledge about how regulatory regions evolve in relation to their structure–function may limit the utility of comparative sequence analysis in deciphering cis-regulatory sequences. To address this we applied reverse genetics to carry out a functional genetic complementation analysis of a eukaryotic cis-regulatory module—the even-skipped stripe 2 enhancer—from four Drosophila species. The evolution of this enhancer is non-clock-like, with important functional differences between closely related species and functional convergence between distantly related species. Functional divergence is attributable to differences in activation levels rather than spatiotemporal control of gene expression. Our findings have implications for understanding enhancer structure–function, mechanisms of speciation and computational identification of regulatory modules.


Copyright: © 2005 Ludwig et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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