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Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol

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dc.contributor Háskóli Íslands
dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor.author Aspelund, Thor
dc.contributor.author Gudnason, Vilmundur
dc.date.accessioned 2020-12-22T14:39:28Z
dc.date.available 2020-12-22T14:39:28Z
dc.date.issued 2020-06-03
dc.identifier.citation NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)., Taddei, C., Zhou, B. et al. Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol. Nature 582, 73–77 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2338-1
dc.identifier.issn 0028-0836
dc.identifier.issn 1476-4687 (eISSN)
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/2323
dc.description Publisher's version (útgefin grein)
dc.description.abstract High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
dc.description.sponsorship This study was funded by a Wellcome Trust (Biomedical Resource & Multi-User Equipment grant 01506/Z/13/Z) and the British Heart Foundation (Centre of Research Excellence grant RE/18/4/34215). C.T. was supported by a Wellcome Trust Research Training Fellowship (203616/Z/16/Z). The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this Article and they do not necessarily represent the views, decisions, or policies of the institutions with which they are affiliated.
dc.format.extent 73-77
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Springer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.relation.ispartofseries Nature;582(7810)
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Cholesterol
dc.subject Lipid-lowering medications
dc.subject HDL
dc.subject Cardiovascular diseases
dc.subject Risk factors
dc.subject Blóðrásarsjúkdómar
dc.subject Kólesteról
dc.title Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
dc.description.version Peer Reviewed
dc.identifier.journal Nature
dc.identifier.doi 10.1038/s41586-020-2338-1
dc.relation.url https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2338-1

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