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Unraveling Myelin Plasticity

Unraveling Myelin Plasticity

Title: Unraveling Myelin Plasticity
Author: Bonetto, Giulia
Kamen, Yasmine
Evans, Kimberley Anne
Karadottir, Ragnhildur Thora   orcid.org/0000-0001-9675-2722
Date: 2020-06-11
Language: English
Scope: 156
University/Institute: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
School: Heilbrigðisvísindasvið (HÍ)
School of Health Sciences (UI)
Department: Læknadeild (HÍ)
Faculty of Medicine (UI)
Series: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience;14
ISSN: 1662-5102
DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2020.00156
Subject: Glutamate; Myelin; Myelin plasticity; Oligodendrocyte; Oligodendrocyte precursor cell; Taugakerfi
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/2296

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Citation: Bonetto G, Kamen Y, Evans KA and Káradóttir RT (2020) Unraveling Myelin Plasticity. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 14:156. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2020.00156


Plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS) allows for responses to changing environmental signals. While the majority of studies on brain plasticity focus on neuronal synapses, myelin plasticity has now begun to emerge as a potential modulator of neuronal networks. Oligodendrocytes (OLs) produce myelin, which provides fast signal transmission, allows for synchronization of neuronal inputs, and helps to maintain neuronal function. Thus, myelination is also thought to be involved in learning. OLs differentiate from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which are distributed throughout the adult brain, and myelination continues into late adulthood. This process is orchestrated by numerous cellular and molecular signals, such as axonal diameter, growth factors, extracellular signaling molecules, and neuronal activity. However, the relative importance of, and cooperation between, these signaling pathways is currently unknown. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge about myelin plasticity in the CNS. We discuss new insights into the link between this type of plasticity, learning and behavior, as well as mechanistic aspects of myelin formation that may underlie myelin plasticity, highlighting OPC diversity in the CNS.


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