Opin vísindi

Pollution from the 2014–15 Bárðarbunga eruption monitored by snow cores from the Vatnajökull glacier, Iceland

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dc.contributor Háskóli Íslands
dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor.author Galeczka, Iwona
dc.contributor.author Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome
dc.contributor.author Pálsson, Finnur
dc.contributor.author Oelkers, Eric
dc.contributor.author Lutz, Stefanie
dc.contributor.author Benning, Liane G.
dc.contributor.author Stefánsson, Andri
dc.contributor.author Kjartansdóttir, Ríkey
dc.contributor.author Gunnarsson-Robin, Jóhann
dc.contributor.author Ono, Shuhei
dc.contributor.author Ólafsdóttir, Rósa
dc.contributor.author Jónasdóttir, Elín Björk
dc.contributor.author Gíslason, Sigurður Reynir
dc.date.accessioned 2020-08-24T11:24:14Z
dc.date.available 2020-08-24T11:24:14Z
dc.date.issued 2017-11
dc.identifier.citation Galeczka, I.,Eiriksdottir, E. S., Pálsson, F., Oelkers, E., Lutz,S., Benning, L. G., Stefánsson, A., Kjartansdóttir, R., Gunnarsson-Robin, J., Ono, S., Ólafsdóttir, R., Jónasardóttir, E. B., Gislason, S. R. (2017). Pollution from the 2014–15 bárðarbunga eruption monitored by snow cores from the vatnajökull glacier, iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 347, 371-396. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.10.006
dc.identifier.issn 0377-0273
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/2004
dc.description Post-print (lokagerð höfundar)
dc.description.abstract The chemical composition of Icelandic rain and snow is dominated by marine aerosols, however human and volcanic activity can also affect these compositions. The six month long 2014–15 Bárðarbunga volcanic eruption was the largest in Iceland for more than 200 years and it released into the atmosphere an average of 60 kt/day SO2, 30 kt/day CO2, 500 t/day HCl and 280 t/day HF. To study the effect of this eruption on the winter precipitation, snow cores were collected from the Vatnajökull glacier and the highlands northeast of the glacier. In addition to 29 bulk snow cores from that precipitated from September 2014 until March 2015, two cores were sampled in 21 and 44 increments to quantify the spatial and time evolution of the chemical composition of the snow. The pH and chemical compositions of melted snow samples indicate that snow has been affected by the volcanic gases emitted during the Bárðarbunga eruption. The pH of the melted bulk snow cores ranged from 4.41 to 5.64 with an average value of 5.01. This is four times greater H+ activity than pure water saturated with the atmospheric CO2. The highest concentrations of volatiles in the snow cores were found close to the eruption site as predicted from CALPUFF SO2 gas dispersion quality model. The anion concentrations (SO4, Cl, and F) were higher and the pH was lower compared to equivalent snow samples collected during 1997–2006 from the unpolluted Icelandic Langjökull glacier. Higher SO4 and Cl concentrations in the snow compared with the unpolluted rainwater of marine origin confirm the addition of a non–seawater SO4 and Cl. The δ34S isotopic composition confirms that the sulphur addition is of volcanic aerosol origin. The chemical evolution of the snow with depth reflects changes in the lava effusion and gas emission rates. Those rates were the highest at the early stage of the eruption. Snow that fell during that time, represented by samples from the deepest part of the snow cores, had the lowest pH and highest concentrations of SO4, F, Cl and metals, compared with snow that fell later in the winter. Also the Al concentration, did exceed World Health Organisation drinking water standard of 3.7 μmol/kg in the lower part of the snow core closest to the eruption site. Collected snow represents the precipitation that fell during the eruption period. Nevertheless, only minor environmental impacts are evident in the snow due to its interaction with the volcanic aerosol gases. In addition, the microbial communities identified in the snow that fell during the eruption were similar to those found in snow from other parts of the Arctic, confirming an insignificant impact of this eruption on the snow microecology
dc.description.sponsorship The authors would like to thank associate editor Alessandro Aiuppa for handling this manuscript. Sergio Calabrese and Pierre Delmelle are greatly thanked for their constructive comments which were of value for manuscript improvements. This study was funded by Ríkislögreglustjórinn Almannavarnadeild – The National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police, Jarðvísindastofnun Háskólans – Institute of Earth Sciences University of Iceland and Veðurstofa Íslands – IMO, and Rannsóknamiðstöð Íslands – The Icelandic Centre for Research RANNÍS (Grant # 163531-051 and 163531-052). The authors would like to thank to all of those who helped to organize the field trip. Special thanks to Þorsteinn Jónsson and Hlynur Skagfjörð Pálsson – without them snow collection would have been impossible. Landsvirkjun is thanked for providing their hut on skis for accommodation and work space during the field work. We also thank all the colleagues and co-workers from Institute of Earth Sciences and IMO for fruitful discussions during the time of the Bárðarbunga unrest. In addition, LGB and SL would like to acknowledge financial support for the microbiological work from the German Helmholtz Recruiting Initiative Fund.
dc.format.extent 371-396
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Elsevier BV
dc.relation.ispartofseries Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research;347
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Eldgos
dc.subject Gosefni
dc.subject Loftmengun
dc.subject Snjóalög
dc.subject Vatnajökull
dc.subject Bárðarbunga
dc.title Pollution from the 2014–15 Bárðarbunga eruption monitored by snow cores from the Vatnajökull glacier, Iceland
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license © 2017 Elsevier B.V. CC BY-NC-ND
dc.description.version Peer reviewed
dc.identifier.journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.10.006
dc.contributor.department Raunvísindastofnun (HÍ)
dc.contributor.department Science Institute (UI)
dc.contributor.school Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
dc.contributor.school School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)

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