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Differentiation at the MHCIIα and Cath2 Loci in Sympatric Salvelinus alpinus Resource Morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn

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dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor Háskóli Íslands
dc.contributor.author Kapralova, Kalina
dc.contributor.author Guðbrandsson, Jóhannes
dc.contributor.author Reynisdottir, Sigrun
dc.contributor.author Santos, Cristina B.
dc.contributor.author Baltanás, Vanessa C
dc.contributor.author Maier, Valerie H. untranslated
dc.contributor.author Snorrason, Sigurður S.
dc.contributor.author Palsson, Arnar
dc.date.accessioned 2017-01-23T11:07:26Z
dc.date.available 2017-01-23T11:07:26Z
dc.date.issued 2013-07-24
dc.identifier.citation Kapralova KH, Gudbrandsson J, Reynisdottir S, Santos CB, Baltanás VC, Maier VH, et al. (2013) Differentiation at the MHCIIα and Cath2 Loci in Sympatric Salvelinus alpinus Resource Morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn. PLoS ONE 8(7): e69402. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069402
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/175
dc.description Publisher's version
dc.description.abstract Northern freshwater fish may be suitable for the genetic dissection of ecological traits because they invaded new habitats after the last ice age (∼10.000 years ago). Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) colonizing streams and lakes in Iceland gave rise to multiple populations of small benthic morphotypes, often in sympatry with a pelagic morphotype. Earlier studies have revealed significant, but subtle, genetic differentiation between the three most common morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn. We conducted a population genetic screen on four immunological candidate genes Cathelicidin 2 (Cath2), Hepcidin (Hamp), Liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2a (Leap-2a), and Major Histocompatibility Complex IIα (MHCIIα) and a mitochondrial marker (D-loop) among the three most common Lake Thingvallavatn charr morphs. Significant differences in allele frequencies were found between morphs at the Cath2 and MHCIIα loci. No such signal was detected in the D-loop nor in the other two immunological genes. In Cath2 the small benthic morph deviated from the other two (FST = 0.13), one of the substitutions detected constituting an amino acid replacement polymorphism in the antimicrobial peptide. A more striking difference was found in the MHCIIα. Two haplotypes were very common in the lake, and their frequency differed greatly between the morphotypes (from 22% to 93.5%, FST = 0.67). We then expanded our study by surveying the variation in Cath2 and MHCIIα in 9 Arctic charr populations from around Iceland. The populations varied greatly in terms of allele frequencies at Cath2, but the variation did not correlate with morphotype. At the MHCIIα locus, the variation was nearly identical to the variation in the two benthic morphs of Lake Thingvallavatn. The results are consistent with a scenario where parts of the immune systems have diverged substantially among Arctic charr populations in Iceland, after colonizing the island ∼10.000 years ago.
dc.description.sponsorship The Palsson laboratory is supported by Icelandic Research foundation and the University of Iceland research fund. Icelandic research foundation (grant of excellence: nr 100204011) to S.S. Sigurdsson, A. Palsson, B.K. Kristjansson, Zophonias O. Jonsson and Ian A. Johnston paid for part of this work. Kalina H. Kapralova and Johannes Gudbrandsson were supported by the University of Iceland doctoral fund. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
dc.format.extent e69402
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Public Library of Science (PLoS)
dc.relation.ispartofseries Plos One;8(7)
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Biochemistry
dc.subject Genetics
dc.subject Molecular Biology
dc.subject Agricultural Sciences
dc.subject Biological Sciences
dc.subject Evolution
dc.subject Lífefnafræði
dc.subject Erfðafræði
dc.subject Sameindalíffræði
dc.subject Þróun lífsins
dc.title Differentiation at the MHCIIα and Cath2 Loci in Sympatric Salvelinus alpinus Resource Morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license © 2013 Kapralova et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
dc.description.version Peer Reviewed
dc.description.version Ritrýnt tímarit
dc.identifier.journal Plos One
dc.identifier.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0069402
dc.contributor.department Líf- og umhverfisvísindadeild (HÍ)
dc.contributor.department Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences (UI)
dc.contributor.school Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
dc.contributor.school School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)

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