Opin vísindi

Molards as an indicator of permafrost degradation and landslide processes

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dc.contributor Háskóli Íslands
dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor.author Morino, Costanza
dc.contributor.author Conway, Susan J.
dc.contributor.author Saemundsson, Thorsteinn
dc.contributor.author Helgason, Jón Kristinn
dc.contributor.author Hillier, John
dc.contributor.author Butcher, Frances E.G.
dc.contributor.author Balme, Matthew R.
dc.contributor.author Jordan, Colm
dc.contributor.author Argles, Tom
dc.date.accessioned 2020-04-03T10:34:29Z
dc.date.available 2020-04-03T10:34:29Z
dc.date.issued 2019-06-15
dc.identifier.citation Morino, C. et al., 2019. Molards as an indicator of permafrost degradation and landslide processes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 516, pp.136–147.
dc.identifier.issn 0012-821X
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/1689
dc.description Publisher's version (útgefin grein)
dc.description.abstract Molards have been defined in the past as conical mounds of debris that can form part of a landslide's deposits. We present the first conclusive evidence that molards in permafrost terrains are cones of loose debris that result from thawing of frozen blocks of ice-rich sediments mobilised by a landslide, and hence propose a rigorous definition of this landform in permafrost environments. We show that molards can be used as an indicator of permafrost degradation, and that their morphometry and spatial distribution give valuable insights into landslide dynamics in permafrost environments. We demonstrate that molards are readily recognisable not only in the field, but also in remote sensing data; surveys of historic aerial imagery allow the recognition of relict molards, which can be used as an indicator of current and past permafrost conditions. The triggering of landslides as a result of permafrost degradation will arguably occur more often as global atmospheric temperatures increase, so molards should be added to our armoury for tracking climate change, as well as helping us to understand landslide-related hazards. Finally, we have also identified candidate molards on Mars, so molards can inform about landscape evolution on Earth and other planetary bodies.
dc.description.sponsorship This work has been funded by a postgraduate studentship grant (NE/L002493/1) from the Central England Natural Environment Research Council Training Alliance (CENTA). This project forms part of and is funded by a British Geological Survey BUFI CASE Studentship (GA/14S/024, Ref: 284). We thank the Natural Environment Research Council Airborne Research Facility (NERC ARF) and their Data Analysis Node (NERC-ARF-DAN) plus the EUropean Facility for Airborne Research (EUFAR) for the air photography and LiDAR data on which this paper relies. Thanks go to NERC Geophysical Equipment Facility (GEF) for the Loans 1048 and 1064 through which differential GPS surveys were possible. We thank the GeoPlanet writing residential scheme for the support in writing this manuscript. C. Jordan publishes with permission of the Executive Director of BGS. S. J. Conway is funded by the French Space Agency, CNES, for her HiRISE related work. We gratefully acknowledge the contribution of Gestur Hansson (Icelandic Meteorological Office) and of our field assistants Francesco Giuntoli, Silvia Crosetto, and Sydney Gunnarson. The authors thank the reviewers Anja Dufresne, Marten Geertsema and Gioachino Roberti for their insightful comments.
dc.format.extent 136-147
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Elsevier BV
dc.relation.ispartofseries Earth and Planetary Science Letters;516
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Iceland
dc.subject Mars
dc.subject Landslide
dc.subject Molards
dc.subject Permafrost
dc.subject Sífreri
dc.subject Skriðuföll
dc.subject Ísland
dc.subject Mars (reikistjarna)
dc.title Molards as an indicator of permafrost degradation and landslide processes
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
dc.description.version Peer Reviewed
dc.identifier.journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.epsl.2019.03.040
dc.contributor.department Líf- og umhverfisvísindadeild (HÍ)
dc.contributor.department Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences (UI)
dc.contributor.school Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
dc.contributor.school School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)

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