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Insufficient iodine status in pregnant women as a consequence of dietary changes

Insufficient iodine status in pregnant women as a consequence of dietary changes

Title: Insufficient iodine status in pregnant women as a consequence of dietary changes
Author: Aðalsteinsdóttir, Sólveig
Tryggvadóttir, Ellen Alma
Hrolfsdottir, Laufey   orcid.org/0000-0003-1974-4205
Halldorsson, Thorhallur   orcid.org/0000-0002-3488-0777
Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva   orcid.org/0000-0002-5788-4551
Hreiðarsdóttir, Ingibjorg Th.
Hardardottir, Hildur   orcid.org/0000-0002-1619-4693
Arohonka, Petra
Erlund, Iris
Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg   orcid.org/0000-0001-9447-8627
Date: 2020-01-06
Language: English
Scope: 3653
University/Institute: Háskólinn á Akureyri
University of Akureyri
Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
School: Heilbrigðisvísindastofnun Háskólans á Akureyri (HA)
Institute of Health Science Research (UA)
Heilbrigðisvísindasvið (HÍ)
School of Health Sciences (UI)
Department: Matvæla- og næringarfræðideild (HÍ)
Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition (UI)
Læknadeild (HÍ)
Faculty of Medicine (UI)
Series: Food & Nutrition Research;64(0)
ISSN: 1654-661X
DOI: 10.29219/fnr.v64.3653
Subject: Iodine; Pregnant women; Food; Joð; Barnshafandi konur; Matvæli
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/1620

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Adalsteinsdottir, S., Tryggvadottir, E. A., Hrolfsdottir, L., Halldorsson, T. I., Birgisdottir, B. E., Hreidarsdottir, I. T., . . . Gunnarsdottir, I. (2020). Insufficient iodine status in pregnant women as consequence of dietary changes. Food and Nutrition Research, 64. doi:10.29219/fnr.v64.3653


Background: Historically, Iceland has been an iodine-sufficient nation due to notably high fish and milk consumption. Recent data suggest that the intake of these important dietary sources of iodine has decreased considerably. Objective: To evaluate the iodine status of pregnant women in Iceland and to determine dietary factors associated with risk for deficiency. Methods: Subjects were women (n = 983; 73% of the eligible sample) attending their first ultrasound appointment in gestational weeks 11–14 in the period October 2017–March 2018. Spot urine samples were collected for assessment of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine. The ratio of iodine to creatinine (I/Cr) was calculated. Median UIC was compared with the optimal range of 150–249 µg/L defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Diet was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which provided information on main dietary sources of iodine in the population studied (dairy and fish). Results: The median UIC (95% confidence interval (CI)) and I/Cr of the study population was 89 µg/L (42, 141) and 100 (94, 108) µg/g, respectively. UIC increased with higher frequency of dairy intake, ranging from median UIC of 55 (35, 79) µg/L for women consuming dairy products <1 time per week to 124 (98, 151) µg/L in the group consuming dairy >2 times per day (P for trend <0.001). A small group of women reporting complete avoidance of fish (n = 18) had UIC of 50 (21, 123) µg/L and significantly lower I/Cr compared with those who did not report avoidance of fish (58 (34, 134) µg/g vs. 100 (94, 108) µg/g, P = 0.041). Women taking supplements containing iodine (n = 34, 3.5%) had significantly higher UIC compared with those who did not take supplements (141 (77, 263) µg/L vs. 87 (82, 94), P = 0.037). Conclusion: For the first time, insufficient iodine status is being observed in an Icelandic population. There is an urgent need for a public health action aiming at improving iodine status of women of childbearing age in Iceland.


© 2020 Solveig Adalsteinsdottir et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

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