Opin vísindi

SURATLANT: a 1993–2017 surface sampling in the central part of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre

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dc.contributor Háskóli Íslands
dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor.author Reverdin, Gilles
dc.contributor.author Metzl, Nicolas
dc.contributor.author Olafsdottir, Solveig
dc.contributor.author Racapé, Virginie
dc.contributor.author Takahashi, Taro
dc.contributor.author Benetti, Marion
dc.contributor.author Valdimarsson, Hedinn
dc.contributor.author Benoit-Cattin, Alice
dc.contributor.author Danielsen, Magnus
dc.contributor.author Fin, Jonathan
dc.contributor.author Naamar, Aicha
dc.contributor.author Pierrot, Denis
dc.contributor.author Sullivan, Kevin
dc.contributor.author Bringas, Francis
dc.contributor.author Goni, Gustavo
dc.date.accessioned 2019-10-01T13:55:55Z
dc.date.available 2019-10-01T13:55:55Z
dc.date.issued 2018-10-18
dc.identifier.citation Reverdin, G., Metzl, N., Olafsdottir, S., Racapé, V., Takahashi, T., Benetti, M., . . . Goni, G. (2018). SURATLANT: a 1993–2017 surface sampling in the central part of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10(4), 1901-1924. doi:10.5194/essd-10-1901-2018
dc.identifier.issn 1866-3516 (eISSN)
dc.identifier.issn 1866-3508
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/1277
dc.description Publisher's version (útgefin grein)
dc.description.abstract This paper presents the SURATLANT data set (SURveillance ATLANTique). It consists of individual data of temperature, salinity, parameters of the carbonate system, nutrients, and water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) collected mostly from ships of opportunity since 1993 along transects between Iceland and Newfoundland (https://doi.org/10.17882/54517). We discuss how the data are validated and qualified, their accuracy, and the overall characteristics of the data set. The data are used to reconstruct seasonal cycles and interannual anomalies, in particular of sea surface salinity (SSS); inorganic nutrients; dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC); and its isotopic composition δ13CDIC, total alkalinity (At), and water isotope concentrations. Derived parameters such as fCO2 and pH are also estimated. The relation between salinity and At is estimated from these data to investigate the possibility to replace missing At when estimating other parameters of the carbonate system. When examining the average seasonal cycle in the deep ocean, in both these data with other climatologies, we find a period of small seasonal change between January and late April. On the Newfoundland shelf and continental slope, changes related with spring stratification and blooms occur earlier. The data were collected in a period of multi-decennial variability associated with the Atlantic multi-decadal variability with warming between 1994 and 2004–2007, and with the recent cooling having peaked in 2014–2016. We also observe strong salinification in 2004–2009 and fresher waters in 1994–1995 as well as since 2010 south of 54° N and in 2016–2017 north of 54° N. Indication of multi-decadal variability is also suggested by other variables, such as phosphate or DIC, but cannot be well resolved seasonally with the discrete sampling and in the presence of interannual variability. As a whole, over the 24 years, the ocean fCO2 trend (+1.9 µatm yr−1) is close to the atmospheric trend and associated with an increase in DIC (+0.77 µmol kg−1 yr−1). The data also revealed a canonical pH decrease of −0.0021 yr−1. There is also a decrease in δ13CDIC between 2005 and 2017 (in winter, −0.014 ‰ yr−1, but larger in summer, −0.042 ‰ yr−1), suggesting a significant anthropogenic carbon signal at play together with other processes (mixing, biological activity).
dc.description.sponsorship The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Easy access on the merchant vessels run or leased by EIMSKIP has been the core of this long effort to maintain surface sampling between Iceland and Newfoundland. The nearly 100 volunteer ship riders and their enthusiasm have been key to the success of this monitoring. The project was initiated when one of the authors, GR, was at LDEO, with initial support from this institution. NOAA/AOML and NOAA/CPO Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division have contributed by maintaining the thermosalinographs and providing XBTs on the different ships that have operated between Iceland and Newfoundland. The French effort was supported by various agencies throughout the years and in particular INSU (direct support to SNO SSS and by the LEFE/CYBER grant CO2SINK and LEFE/GMMC grant GREENGROG since 2016) and IPEV. Support by National Power Company of Iceland Landsvirkjun is acknowledged. The δ 13CDIC sampling was initiated by Paul Quay (University of Washington, Seattle) in 2005–2006. SNAPO-CO2 is acknowledged for analyzing DIC/ At at LODYC/LOCEAN since 2001 and the isotopic platform of OSU Ecce Terra for analyzing δ 13CDIC as well as water stable isotopes at LOCEAN since 2010. Collaboration between French and Icelandic investigators has been supported by PHC Jules Verne 2016 grant 36187YF. Support for Virginie Racapé was most recently provided by IFREMER and for Marion Benetti by a grant from the University of Iceland in Reykjavik. The very supportive help of Christian Brunet for the analysis of DIC/ At samples in 2001–2014 is warmly acknowledged. Support from the European Integrated Project CARBOOCEAN (511176) is also acknowledged. Some figures were plotted using Ocean Data View (ODV) (Schlitzer, 2013). Comments and suggestions by two reviewers have contributed to improve the manuscript.
dc.format.extent 1901-1924
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Copernicus GmbH
dc.relation.ispartofseries Earth System Science Data;10(4)
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Haffræði
dc.subject Hitastig
dc.subject Sjávarselta
dc.subject Norður-Atlantshaf
dc.subject Gagnasöfn
dc.title SURATLANT: a 1993–2017 surface sampling in the central part of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
dc.description.version Peer Reviewed
dc.identifier.journal Earth System Science Data
dc.identifier.doi 10.5194/essd-10-1901-2018
dc.relation.url https://www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/10/1901/2018/essd-10-1901-2018.pdf
dc.contributor.department Jarðvísindastofnun (HÍ)
dc.contributor.department Institute of Earth Sciences (UI)
dc.contributor.school Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
dc.contributor.school School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)

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