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Association between maternal gluten intake and type 1 diabetes in offspring: national prospective cohort study in Denmark

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dc.contributor Háskóli Íslands
dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor.author Antvorskov, Julie C
dc.contributor.author Halldorsson, Thorhallur
dc.contributor.author Josefsen, Knud
dc.contributor.author Svensson, Jannet
dc.contributor.author Granström, Charlotta
dc.contributor.author Roep, Bart O
dc.contributor.author Olesen, Trine H
dc.contributor.author Hrolfsdottir, Laufey
dc.contributor.author Buschard, Karsten
dc.contributor.author Olsen, Sjurdur F.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-04-08T11:37:56Z
dc.date.available 2019-04-08T11:37:56Z
dc.date.issued 2018-09-19
dc.identifier.citation Antvorskov, J. C., Halldorsson, T. I., Josefsen, K., Svensson, J., Granström, C., Roep, B. O., . . . Olsen, S. F. (2018). Association between maternal gluten intake and type 1 diabetes in offspring: national prospective cohort study in Denmark. BMJ, 362, k3547. doi:10.1136/bmj.k3547
dc.identifier.issn 0959-8138
dc.identifier.issn 1756-1833 (eISSN)
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/1099
dc.description Publisher's version (útgefin grein)
dc.description.abstract Objective To examine the association between prenatal gluten exposure and offspring risk of type 1 diabetes in humans. Design National prospective cohort study. Setting National health information registries in Denmark. Participants Pregnant Danish women enrolled into the Danish National Birth Cohort, between January 1996 and October 2002, Main outcome measures Maternal gluten intake, based on maternal consumption of gluten containing foods, was reported in a 360 item food frequency questionnaire at week 25 of pregnancy. Information on type 1 diabetes occurrence in the participants’ children, from 1 January 1996 to 31 May 2016, were obtained through registry linkage to the Danish Registry of Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes. Results The study comprised 101 042 pregnancies in 91 745 women, of whom 70 188 filled out the food frequency questionnaire. After correcting for multiple pregnancies, pregnancies ending in abortions, stillbirths, lack of information regarding the pregnancy, and pregnancies with implausibly high or low energy intake, 67 565 pregnancies (63 529 women) were included. The average gluten intake was 13.0 g/day, ranging from less than 7 g/day to more than 20 g/day. The incidence of type 1 diabetes among children in the cohort was 0.37% (n=247) with a mean follow-up period of 15.6 years (standard deviation 1.4). Risk of type 1 diabetes in offspring increased proportionally with maternal gluten intake during pregnancy (adjusted hazard ratio 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.001 to 1.72) per 10 g/day increase of gluten). Women with the highest gluten intake versus those with the lowest gluten intake (≥20 v <7 g/day) had double the risk of type 1 diabetes development in their offspring (adjusted hazard ratio 2.00 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 4.00)). Conclusions High gluten intake by mothers during pregnancy could increase the risk of their children developing type 1 diabetes. However, confirmation of these findings are warranted, preferably in an intervention setting.
dc.description.sponsorship This study was supported by Kirsten and Freddy Johansens Foundation, and by the March of Dimes Foundation (6-FY-96-0240, 6-FY97-0553, 6-FY97-0521, 6-FY00-407), Innovation Fund Denmark (grant No 09-067124, Centre for Fetal Programming), Danish Heart Association, Sygekassernes Helsefond, and the Danish National Research Foundation. The funders had no influence on the study.
dc.format.extent k3547
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher BMJ
dc.relation.ispartofseries BMJ;362
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Sykursýki
dc.subject Glúten
dc.subject Meðganga
dc.subject Spurningalistar
dc.title Association between maternal gluten intake and type 1 diabetes in offspring: national prospective cohort study in Denmark
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
dc.description.version Peer Reviewed
dc.identifier.journal BMJ
dc.identifier.doi 10.1136/bmj.k3547
dc.contributor.department Matvæla- og næringarfræðideild (HÍ)
dc.contributor.department Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition (UI)
dc.contributor.school Heilbrigðisvísindasvið (HÍ)
dc.contributor.school School of Health Sciences (UI)

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