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Skærulist í þágu jafnréttis?: framlag karla með þroskahömlun til jafnréttisstarfa

Skærulist í þágu jafnréttis?: framlag karla með þroskahömlun til jafnréttisstarfa


Titill: Skærulist í þágu jafnréttis?: framlag karla með þroskahömlun til jafnréttisstarfa
Aðrir titlar: Guerrilla art and the quest for equality: the contribution of men with intellectual disabilities to equality work.
Höfundur: Björnsson, Gísli
Björnsdóttir, Harpa
Björnsdóttir, Kristín
Smárason, Ragnar
Útgáfa: 2017-11-27
Tungumál: Íslenska
Umfang: 17 bls.
Háskóli/Stofnun: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
Svið: Menntavísindasvið (HÍ)
School of education (UI)
Birtist í: Netla ársrit 2017;
ISSN: 1670-0244
Efnisorð: Jafnréttismál; Fötlun; Aðgerðastefna; Listir
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/608

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Tilvitnun:

Gísli Björnsson, Harpa Björnsdóttir, Kristín Björnsdóttir og Ragnar Smárason. (2017). Skærulist í þágu jafnréttis? Framlag karla með þroskahömlun til jafnréttisstarfa Netla – Veftímarit um uppeldi og menntun. Menntavísindasvið Háskóla Íslands. Sótt af http://netla.hi.is/greinar/2017/ryn/11

Útdráttur:

 
Á undanförnum misserum hafa orðið breytingar í umræðunni um jafnrétti þar sem áhersla er lögð á jafnrétti allra í stað þess að beina sjónum fyrst og fremst að jafnrétti kynjanna. Þrátt fyrir þessar breytingar hefur fatlað fólk, og þá sérstaklega fólk með þroskahömlun, áfram verið jaðarsett í íslenskri jafnréttis- og hagsmunabaráttu. Þar sem konur með þroskahömlun hafa verið meira áberandi í hagsmunabaráttu fatlaðs fólks er mikilvægt að beina sjónum að því hvernig hægt er að virkja karla með þroskahömlun til vitundar um jafnréttismál og þátttöku í jafnréttisstarfi. Í greininni verður fjallað um aðgerðir tveggja karla með þroskahömlun í þágu jafnréttis sem fóru fram í miðbæ Reykjavíkur sumarið 2016. Aðgerðirnar voru liður í verkefninu Jafnrétti fyrir alla sem styrkt var af Jafnréttissjóði og Rannsóknasjóði HÍ og hafði það að markmiði að skoða viðhorf karla með þroskahömlun til jafnréttismála og leita leiða til að virkja þá til þátttöku í jafnréttisstarfi. Aðgerðirnar voru í anda skærulistar (e. guerrilla art) sem sköpuð er í leyfisleysi þegar enginn sér til og felur í sér ádeilu á ríkjandi menningu og samfélagsskipan. Tilgangurinn er að vekja almenning til vitundar um samfélagsleg málefni. Í greininni er aðgerðunum lýst og hvernig þátttakendur sköpuðu sér rými í miðbænum þar sem þeir höfðu skilgreiningarvaldið og trufluðu gangandi vegfarendur sem stöldruðu við til að skoða veggspjöld, lásu falin skilaboð eða skrifuðu í ferðadagbækur. Aðgerðirnar voru liður í samvinnurannsókn þar sem karlar með þroskahömlun og ófatlaður háskólakennari unnu náið saman og allir aðilar voru virkir þátttakendur í rannsóknarferlinu. Samvinnurannsóknum er ætlað að vera valdeflandi og gefa fólki með þroskahömlun tækifæri til að hafa áhrif á það hvernig fjallað er um líf þess og reynslu. Það takmarkar hins vegar valdið að hafa ekki raunverulegan aðgang að fræðasamfélaginu. Ráðstefnur eru gjarnan haldnar í óaðgengilegu húsnæði, ráðstefnugjöldin eru há og fyrirlesarar nota óþarflega mörg og flókin orð, og hið sama á við um nefndarstörf. Það er því mikilvægt að leita annarra og óhefðbundinna leiða til að gera sig gildandi innan fræðasamfélagsins og jafnréttisbaráttunnar, en skærulistin var einmitt liður í því.
 
People with intellectual disabilities have been marginalized within the disability movement and not had access to ideas on gender equality or equality work (Björnsdóttir and Traustadóttir, 2010). This has led to an overemphasis on traditional gender roles within the special education and support systems where gender/sexuality has been normalized in the lives of people with intellectual disabilities (Björnsdóttir, Stefánsdóttir and Stefánsdóttir, 2017). It has been recognized that disabled women are subject to multiple discrimination and are at greater risk of violence and abuse than non-disabled women or men (Snæfríðar- and Gunnarsdóttir, and Traustadóttir, 2015). Consequently, there has been more focus on the lived experiences of disabled women within the academic fields of disability studies and gender studies than on the lives of disabled men. However, research suggests that men with intellectual disabilities are denied opportunities equal to others to develop their gender and sexual identities and are often considered to be asexual eternal children or sexual predators who need to be managed and controlled (Björnsdóttir, Stefánsdóttir and Stefánsdóttir, 2017). In January 2016, two men with intellectual disabilities were hired by the University of Iceland’s School of Education to work on a research project which aims to explore the access of men with intellectual disabilities to ideas on gender equality and equality work. This article discusses the actions of two men with intellectual disabilities who performed guerrilla art, in downtown Reykjavík, in the summer of 2016, in their quest for equality. Guerrilla art is created anonymously, performed without permission and critiques the dominant culture and social order. The purpose is to raise public awareness about various social issues. The article describes the actions and explains how the men are both contributing to equality work and disability activism. In recent years equality work in Iceland has expanded from a strict focus on gender equality to broader notions of diversity and human rights (Þorvaldsdóttir, 2014). The guerrilla project was initially focused on gender equality but developed into a broader notion of equality where disability, gender, and other categories of oppression intersect. The men are, therefore, not in the role of self-advocates per se, but rather as activists demanding equality for all. The article describes how the men carved out space in Reykjavík’s city centre for their activism where they had the power to define intellectual disabilities in relation to equality. Their presence and their actions in the city centre were disrupting; pedestrians stopped and looked at their posters, read hidden messages in library books, wrote their thoughts in travel journals and shared their experience on social media. The French philosopher Michel De Certeau (1984) distinguishes between place and space. The dominant social groups strategically organize places of order and stability. An example of a place is the University of Iceland, the campus with buildings, offices, classrooms and laboratories, departments and programs managed by the staff, laws and regulations. Strict rules state who have access to university life, academics and activities. Another example of a place is downtown Reykjavik where the guerrilla art was performed. There are buildings, streets, sidewalks and walkways and we are supposed to walk along the sidewalks and cross streets on walkways. De Certeau (1984) called it “tactic” when people would use the place wrongly, for example by walking on the street. The guerrilla art was their tactic and the men used it to carve out space where they had the power to disrupt the existing social order. They are disrupting by asking pedestrians to stop and reflect on their society. Who are welcome? Who have access? What is equality? The disruption transformed the place into a space for equality work. The guerrilla art project is part of an ongoing inclusive research where men labelled as having intellectual disabilities collaborate on research with a non-disabled university teacher. In inclusive research, people with intellectual disabilities are not viewed as passive research subjects and they have opportunities to participate in the research process and often take on valued social roles as co-researchers. Inclusive research is supposed to be empowering for people with intellectual disabilities since they get an opportunity to contribute on the discussion of disability and acquire control over how people with intellectual disabilities are presented in research (Walmsley and Johnson (2003). However, barriers to full inclusion to academia, the place of research, are oppressive. Conferences are often held in inaccessible buildings, conference fees are expensive and speakers commonly use an excessive number of complex words and the same applies to committee meetings. It is, therefore, important to look for other non-traditional ways to make their presence felt within academia, and the guerrilla art event was part of that. By collaborating on this academic article we are also carving space within academia where people with intellectual disabilities are recognized for their contribution to the generation of knowledge about equality and disability. However, we also fear that this article has reduced the empowering experience of creating guerrilla art to something different, a traditional academic construction which is consequently inaccessible to most people with intellectual disabilities. We have been funded by research funds and are obligated to produce our research outcomes and hopefully we are also disrupting academia by sharing this collaborative knowledge production.
 

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