Opin vísindi

The Epidemiology of Newly Recognized Causes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury : An Update

Show simple item record

dc.contributor.author Björnsson, Einar Stefán
dc.date.accessioned 2024-05-08T01:04:49Z
dc.date.available 2024-05-08T01:04:49Z
dc.date.issued 2024-04
dc.identifier.citation Björnsson , E S 2024 , ' The Epidemiology of Newly Recognized Causes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury : An Update ' , Pharmaceuticals , vol. 17 , no. 4 , 520 . https://doi.org/10.3390/ph17040520
dc.identifier.issn 1424-8247
dc.identifier.other 222262701
dc.identifier.other bd9a6733-56d1-4eae-826d-81844210af2b
dc.identifier.other 85191408032
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/4913
dc.description Publisher Copyright: © 2024 by the author.
dc.description.abstract The incidence and prevalence of drug-induced liver injury appear to be increasing globally, for example, with the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors. Several reviews have been published in the last decade on the epidemiology of DILI, both among hospitalized patients and in the general population, as well as from retrospective and prospective studies on DILI. Most of these reviews have not focused on newly recognized agents that have recently changed the landscape of DILI. Apart from liver injury associated with antibiotics, oncological agents, particularly checkpoint inhibitors, are increasingly being recognized as causing liver injury. The type of liver injury associated with these agents is not idiosyncratic but rather an indirect type of injury. Furthermore, recently, COVID-19 vaccines and green tea extract have been found to lead to liver injury. Checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of many malignancies, such as malignant melanoma, lung cancer, and renal cancer. Via the activation of T cells, they can increase immune activity against malignant cells, but at the same time, they can decrease immune tolerance and therefore lead to immune-related adverse effects in many organs. The most common adverse effect in clinical practice is liver injury. A recent prospective study demonstrated an 8% frequency of DILI due to the use of checkpoint inhibitors among patients with malignant melanoma and renal cancer. This rate is much higher than observed with drugs, leading to idiosyncratic liver injury. Shortly after the implementation of the worldwide vaccination program against COVID-19, several case reports were published on suspected vaccination-induced autoimmune-like hepatitis occurring shortly after the vaccination. At first, these reports were met with skepticism, but currently, around 100 reports have been published, and cases of positive recurrence have been reported. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological features are indistinguishable from classic autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). These reactions are very similar to drug-induced autoimmune-like hepatitis (DI-ALH) due to drugs such as nitrofurantoin, minocycline, and infliximab, which do not relapse after a short course of corticosteroids, which is the general rule in classic autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Green tea extract has been found to be a well-documented cause of acute hepatocellular liver injury with jaundice. A strong HLA association has been reported, showing a high prevalence of HLA-B*35:01 among patients suffering from green tea-induced liver injury. Overall, 3% of patients recruited in the DILIN study were supplemented with green tea extract as one of the ingredients. In a prospective population-based study from Iceland, green tea was implicated in approximately 8% of patients with DILI.
dc.format.extent 293787
dc.language.iso en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Pharmaceuticals; 17(4)
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Meltingarlæknisfræði
dc.subject AIH
dc.subject checkpoint inhibitors
dc.subject COVID vaccination
dc.subject DI-ALH
dc.subject drug-induced liver injury
dc.subject green tea extract
dc.subject Molecular Medicine
dc.subject Pharmaceutical Science
dc.subject Drug Discovery
dc.title The Epidemiology of Newly Recognized Causes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury : An Update
dc.type /dk/atira/pure/researchoutput/researchoutputtypes/contributiontojournal/systematicreview
dc.description.version Peer reviewed
dc.identifier.doi 10.3390/ph17040520
dc.relation.url http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85191408032&partnerID=8YFLogxK
dc.contributor.department Faculty of Medicine
dc.contributor.department Other departments

Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record