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The Epidemiology of Newly Recognized Causes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury : An Update

The Epidemiology of Newly Recognized Causes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury : An Update

Title: The Epidemiology of Newly Recognized Causes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury : An Update
Author: Björnsson, Einar Stefán
Date: 2024-04
Language: English
Scope: 293787
Department: Faculty of Medicine
Other departments
Series: Pharmaceuticals; 17(4)
ISSN: 1424-8247
DOI: 10.3390/ph17040520
Subject: Meltingarlæknisfræði; AIH; checkpoint inhibitors; COVID vaccination; DI-ALH; drug-induced liver injury; green tea extract; Molecular Medicine; Pharmaceutical Science; Drug Discovery
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/4913

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Björnsson , E S 2024 , ' The Epidemiology of Newly Recognized Causes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury : An Update ' , Pharmaceuticals , vol. 17 , no. 4 , 520 . https://doi.org/10.3390/ph17040520


The incidence and prevalence of drug-induced liver injury appear to be increasing globally, for example, with the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors. Several reviews have been published in the last decade on the epidemiology of DILI, both among hospitalized patients and in the general population, as well as from retrospective and prospective studies on DILI. Most of these reviews have not focused on newly recognized agents that have recently changed the landscape of DILI. Apart from liver injury associated with antibiotics, oncological agents, particularly checkpoint inhibitors, are increasingly being recognized as causing liver injury. The type of liver injury associated with these agents is not idiosyncratic but rather an indirect type of injury. Furthermore, recently, COVID-19 vaccines and green tea extract have been found to lead to liver injury. Checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of many malignancies, such as malignant melanoma, lung cancer, and renal cancer. Via the activation of T cells, they can increase immune activity against malignant cells, but at the same time, they can decrease immune tolerance and therefore lead to immune-related adverse effects in many organs. The most common adverse effect in clinical practice is liver injury. A recent prospective study demonstrated an 8% frequency of DILI due to the use of checkpoint inhibitors among patients with malignant melanoma and renal cancer. This rate is much higher than observed with drugs, leading to idiosyncratic liver injury. Shortly after the implementation of the worldwide vaccination program against COVID-19, several case reports were published on suspected vaccination-induced autoimmune-like hepatitis occurring shortly after the vaccination. At first, these reports were met with skepticism, but currently, around 100 reports have been published, and cases of positive recurrence have been reported. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological features are indistinguishable from classic autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). These reactions are very similar to drug-induced autoimmune-like hepatitis (DI-ALH) due to drugs such as nitrofurantoin, minocycline, and infliximab, which do not relapse after a short course of corticosteroids, which is the general rule in classic autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Green tea extract has been found to be a well-documented cause of acute hepatocellular liver injury with jaundice. A strong HLA association has been reported, showing a high prevalence of HLA-B*35:01 among patients suffering from green tea-induced liver injury. Overall, 3% of patients recruited in the DILIN study were supplemented with green tea extract as one of the ingredients. In a prospective population-based study from Iceland, green tea was implicated in approximately 8% of patients with DILI.


Publisher Copyright: © 2024 by the author.

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