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The 2014 Lake Askja rockslide-induced tsunami: Optimization of numerical tsunami model using observed data

The 2014 Lake Askja rockslide-induced tsunami: Optimization of numerical tsunami model using observed data


Titill: The 2014 Lake Askja rockslide-induced tsunami: Optimization of numerical tsunami model using observed data
Höfundur: Gylfadottir, Sigridur Sif   orcid.org/0000-0002-0752-0004
Kim, Jihwan
Helgason, Jón Kristinn
Brynjólfsson, Sveinn
Höskuldsson, Ármann   orcid.org/0000-0002-6316-2563
Jóhannesson, Tómas
Harbitz, Carl Bonnevie
Løvholt, Finn
Útgáfa: 2017-05
Tungumál: Enska
Umfang: 4110-4122
Háskóli/Stofnun: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
Svið: Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)
Deild: Jarðvísindastofnun (HÍ)
Institute of Earth Sciences (UI)
Birtist í: Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans;122(5)
ISSN: 0148-0227
2156-2202 (eISSN)
DOI: 10.1002/2016JC012496
Efnisorð: Tsunami; Boussinesq; Askja; Shallow water; Öskjur (jarðfræði); Skriðuföll; Strandflóð
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/439

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Tilvitnun:

Gylfadóttir, S. S., J. Kim, J. K. Helgason, S. Brynjólfsson, Á. Höskuldsson, T. Jóhannesson, C. B. Harbitz, and F. Løvholt (2017), The 2014 Lake Askja rockslide-induced tsunami: Optimization of numerical tsunami model using observed data, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, 4110–4122, doi:10.1002/2016JC012496.

Útdráttur:

A large rockslide was released from the inner Askja caldera into Lake Askja, Iceland, on 21 July 2014. Upon entering the lake, it caused a large tsunami that traveled about ∼3 km across the lake and inundated the shore with vertical runup measuring up to 60–80 m. Following the event, comprehensive field data were collected, including GPS measurements of the inundation and multibeam echo soundings of the lake bathymetry. Using this exhaustive data set, numerical modeling of the tsunami has been conducted using both a nonlinear shallow water model and a Boussinesq-type model that includes frequency dispersion. To constrain unknown landslide parameters, a global optimization algorithm, Differential Evolution, was employed, resulting in a parameter set that minimized the deviation from measured inundation. The tsunami model of Lake Askja is the first example where we have been able to utilize field data to show that frequency dispersion is needed to explain the tsunami wave radiation pattern and that shallow water theory falls short. We were able to fit the trend in tsunami runup observations around the entire lake using the Boussinesq model. In contrast, the shallow water model gave a different runup pattern and produced pronounced offsets in certain areas. The well-documented Lake Askja tsunami thus provided a unique opportunity to explore and capture the essential physics of landslide tsunami generation and propagation through numerical modeling. Moreover, the study of the event is important because this dispersive nature is likely to occur for other subaerial impact tsunamis.

Leyfi:

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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