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Low-Cost Unattended Design of Miniaturized 4 × 4 Butler Matrices with Nonstandard Phase Differences

Low-Cost Unattended Design of Miniaturized 4 × 4 Butler Matrices with Nonstandard Phase Differences


Title: Low-Cost Unattended Design of Miniaturized 4 × 4 Butler Matrices with Nonstandard Phase Differences
Author: Bekasiewicz, Adrian   orcid.org/0000-0003-0244-541X
Koziel, Slawomir   orcid.org/0000-0002-0584-4427
Date: 2021-01-27
Language: English
Scope: 851
University/Institute: Háskólinn í Reykjavík
Reykjavik University
School: Tæknisvið (HR)
School of Technology (RU)
Department: Engineering Optimization & Modeling Center (EOMC) (RU)
Series: Sensors;21(3)
ISSN: 1424-8220
DOI: 10.3390/s21030851
Subject: Butler matrix; Circuit miniaturization; Design automation; Internet of Things; 5G technology; Netið; Hönnun; Sjálfvirkni; Hlutanet; Fjarskiptatækni
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/2635

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Citation:

Bekasiewicz, A.; Koziel, S. Low-Cost Unattended Design of Miniaturized 4×4 Butler Matrices with Nonstandard Phase Differences. Sensors 2021, 21, 851. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030851

Abstract:

Design of Butler matrices dedicated to Internet of Things and 5th generation (5G) mobile systems-where small size and high performance are of primary concern-is a challenging task that often exceeds capabilities of conventional techniques. Lack of appropriate, unified design approaches is a serious bottleneck for the development of Butler structures for contemporary applications. In this work, a low-cost bottom-up procedure for rigorous and unattended design of miniaturized 4 x 4 Butler matrices is proposed. The presented approach exploits numerical algorithms (governed by a set of suitable objective functions) to control synthesis, implementation, optimization, and fine-tuning of the structure and its individual building blocks. The framework is demonstrated using two miniaturized matrices with nonstandard output-port phase differences. Numerical results indicate that the computational cost of the design process using the presented framework is over 80% lower compared to the conventional approach. The footprints of optimized matrices are only 696 and 767 mm(2), respectively. Small size and operation frequency of around 2.6 GHz make the circuits of potential use for mobile devices dedicated to work within a sub-6 GHz 5G spectrum. Both structures have been benchmarked against the state-of-the-art designs from the literature in terms of performance and size. Measurements of the fabricated Butler matrix prototype are also provided.

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This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

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