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Geological challenges and geohazard monitoring of a mega engineering hydropower project in Iceland

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dc.contributor Háskólinn í Reykjavík
dc.contributor Reykjavik University
dc.contributor.author Sigtryggsdóttir, Fjóla G.
dc.contributor.author Snæbjörnsson, Jónas Thór
dc.date.accessioned 2020-06-25T14:35:15Z
dc.date.available 2020-06-25T14:35:15Z
dc.date.issued 2019-09
dc.identifier.citation Sigtryggsdottir, F. G., & Snbjornsson, J. T. (2019). Geological challenges and geohazard monitoring of a mega engineering hydropower project in Iceland. Engineering Geology, 259, UNSP 105152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2019.105152
dc.identifier.issn 0013-7952
dc.identifier.issn 1872-6917 (eISSN)
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/1907
dc.description Publisher's version (útgefin grein).
dc.description.abstract Geohazards must be considered, assessed and mitigated for all life-cycle phases of most mega infrastructure projects. This paper presents a unique mega engineering project, the 600 MW Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Project in Iceland. The construction site presented several interesting and complex geological and geophysical conditions, such as an unexpected discovery of an active fault in the foundation of the main dam (mega dam) and earthquake activity in a nearby volcanic zone caused by a subsurface volcanic intrusion during the first impoundment. The related apprehensions included predictions of: Persistent movements and opening of faults in the dam foundation causing excessive leakage, large reservoir induced crustal deformation that could trigger volcanic eruption or near field earthquake action such as reservoir triggered earthquakes that might affect the safety of the dam structures. The approach taken to resolve these apprehensions was to undertake specific investigations, assessments and monitoring, through a novel multidisciplinary organization. The focus of the paper is on describing the development and implementation of a holistic multi-source geohazard monitoring program for the main reservoir, Hálslón Reservoir and its dams. The discussion starts with a definition of what constitutes monitoring of geohazards within the framework of the project. This is followed by an outline of the monitoring networks implemented comprising instruments monitoring seismicity (micro-seismic stations and strong-motion instrumentation), crustal movements (continuous global positioning systems and benchmarks), fault movement (extensometers, joint and crack meters), groundwater elevation and leakage. Finally, a summary of key results from the geohazard monitoring is given. The geological challenges and related apprehensions are linked to the relevant research and investigations carried out, the monitoring networks installed, and the results produced, which demonstrate that during and after the first impoundment the key monitored processes were all within the pre-set limits. The case presented is relevant for current and future mega engineering projects as it demonstrates that a monitoring program set up to guard operational safety in the spirit of potential failure mode analysis, will provide important information on geo-environmental impact of a mega engineering project, not only for scientific interest but also for public information.
dc.description.sponsorship The monitoring network and the work of the multidisciplinary ESG overseeing the program was funded by Landsvirkjun (The National Power Company of Iceland). The contribution of Petur Ingolfsson, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, Kristjan Sigmundsson, Steinunn Jakobsdottir, Halldor Geirsson, Benedikt Ofeigsson, Victor Helgason, Agust Guomundsson, Haukur Johannesson, Johann Helgason, Pall Einarsson, Vilbergur Kristinsson, Ragnar Sigbjornsson, Markus Rennen and the designer the Karahnjukar Engineering Joint Venture (KEJV), in planning and implementing a successful research and monitoring program is acknowledged. The authors are grateful for access to figures, information and data from the above parties as well as from Landsvirkjun, the Icelandic Meteorological Office, and KEJV through Verkis Iceland.
dc.format.extent UNSP 105152
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Elsevier BV
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Geohazard
dc.subject Monitoring, multidisciplinary approach
dc.subject Reservoir
dc.subject Mega dam
dc.subject Geo-environmental impact
dc.subject Potential failure mode analysis
dc.subject Landslide
dc.subject Seismicity
dc.subject Engineering
dc.subject Náttúruhamfarir
dc.subject Hættumat
dc.subject Umhverfisvöktun
dc.subject Eftirlit
dc.subject Uppistöðulón
dc.subject Stíflur
dc.subject Vatnsaflsvirkjanir
dc.subject Áhættugreining
dc.subject Skriðuföll
dc.subject Jarðskjálftavirkni
dc.subject Verkfræði
dc.title Geological challenges and geohazard monitoring of a mega engineering hydropower project in Iceland
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dcterms.license This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY-NC-ND/4.0/).
dc.description.version "Peer Reviewed"
dc.identifier.journal Engineering Geology
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.enggeo.2019.105152
dc.contributor.department Verkfræðideild (HR)
dc.contributor.department Department of Engineering (RU)
dc.contributor.school Tæknisvið (HR)
dc.contributor.school School of Technology (RU)


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