Opin vísindi

Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow

Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow


Title: Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow
Author: Gudmundsson, Magnus Tumi   orcid.org/0000-0001-5325-3368
Jónsdóttir, Kristín
Hooper, Andrew
Holohan, Eoghan P.
Halldorsson, Saemundur   orcid.org/0000-0002-9311-7704
Ofeigsson, Benedikt Gunnar   orcid.org/0000-0002-0069-9144
Cesca, Simone
Vogfjörð, Kristín S.
Sigmundsson, Freysteinn   orcid.org/0000-0001-9052-4665
Högnadóttir, Thórdís   orcid.org/0000-0003-4596-1510
... 38 more authors Show all authors
Advisor:
Date: 2016-07-14
Language: English
Scope: aaf8988
University/Institute: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
School: Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)
Department: Jarðvísindastofnun (HÍ)
Institute of Earth Sciences (UI)
Iðnaðarverkfræði-, vélaverkfræði- og tölvunarfræðideild (HÍ)
Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science (UI)
Series: Science;353(6296)
ISSN: 0036-8075
1095-9203 (e-ISSN)
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8988
Subject: Caldera collapse; Eruption; Lateral Magma Flow; Glacier Dynamics; Bárðarbunga; Öskjugos; Eldgos; Hraunrennsli
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/190

Show full item record

Citation:

Gudmundsson, M. T., Jónsdóttir, K., Hooper, A., Holohan, E. P., Halldórsson, S. A., Ófeigsson, B. G., . . . Aiuppa, A. (2016). Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow. Science, 353(6296). doi:10.1126/science.aaf8988

Abstract:

Large volcanic eruptions on Earth commonly occur with a collapse of the roof of a crustal magma reservoir, forming a caldera. Only a few such collapses occur per century, and the lack of detailed observations has obscured insight into the mechanical interplay between collapse and eruption.We usemultiparameter geophysical and geochemical data to show that the 110-square kilometer and 65-meter-deep collapse of Bárdarbunga caldera in 2014–2015 was initiated through withdrawal of magma, and lateral migration through a 48-kilometers-long dike, from a 12-kilometers deep reservoir. Interaction between the pressure exerted by the subsiding reservoir roof and the physical properties of the subsurface flow path explain the gradual, near exponential decline of both collapse rate and the intensity of the 180-day- long eruption.

Rights:

Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)