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Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow

Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow


Titill: Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow
Höfundur: Gudmundsson, Magnus Tumi   orcid.org/0000-0001-5325-3368
Jónsdóttir, Kristín
Hooper, Andrew
Holohan, Eoghan P.
Halldorsson, Saemundur   orcid.org/0000-0002-9311-7704
Ofeigsson, Benedikt Gunnar   orcid.org/0000-0002-0069-9144
Cesca, Simone
Vogfjörð, Kristín S.
Sigmundsson, Freysteinn   orcid.org/0000-0001-9052-4665
Högnadóttir, Thórdís   orcid.org/0000-0003-4596-1510
... 38 fleiri höfundar Sýna alla höfunda
Útgáfa: 2016-07-14
Tungumál: Enska
Umfang: aaf8988
Háskóli/Stofnun: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
Svið: Verkfræði- og náttúruvísindasvið (HÍ)
School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (UI)
Deild: Jarðvísindastofnun (HÍ)
Institute of Earth Sciences (UI)
Iðnaðarverkfræði-, vélaverkfræði- og tölvunarfræðideild (HÍ)
Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science (UI)
Birtist í: Science;353(6296)
ISSN: 0036-8075
1095-9203 (e-ISSN)
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8988
Efnisorð: Caldera collapse; Eruption; Lateral Magma Flow; Glacier Dynamics; Bárðarbunga; Öskjugos; Eldgos; Hraunrennsli
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/190

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Tilvitnun:

Gudmundsson, M. T., Jónsdóttir, K., Hooper, A., Holohan, E. P., Halldórsson, S. A., Ófeigsson, B. G., . . . Aiuppa, A. (2016). Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow. Science, 353(6296). doi:10.1126/science.aaf8988

Útdráttur:

Large volcanic eruptions on Earth commonly occur with a collapse of the roof of a crustal magma reservoir, forming a caldera. Only a few such collapses occur per century, and the lack of detailed observations has obscured insight into the mechanical interplay between collapse and eruption.We usemultiparameter geophysical and geochemical data to show that the 110-square kilometer and 65-meter-deep collapse of Bárdarbunga caldera in 2014–2015 was initiated through withdrawal of magma, and lateral migration through a 48-kilometers-long dike, from a 12-kilometers deep reservoir. Interaction between the pressure exerted by the subsiding reservoir roof and the physical properties of the subsurface flow path explain the gradual, near exponential decline of both collapse rate and the intensity of the 180-day- long eruption.

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Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science

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