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Námserfiðleikar og velgengni í námi : um mikilvægi stuðnings

Námserfiðleikar og velgengni í námi : um mikilvægi stuðnings


Titill: Námserfiðleikar og velgengni í námi : um mikilvægi stuðnings
Aðrir titlar: Learning difficulties and successes in school : The importance of support
Höfundur: Harðardóttir, Sigrún   orcid.org/0000-0002-9925-2827
Kristinsdóttir, Guðrún
Útgáfa: 2016-09-19
Tungumál: Íslenska
Umfang: 1-19
Háskóli/Stofnun: Háskóli Íslands
University of Iceland
Svið: Menntavísindasvið (HÍ)
School of Education (UI)
Félagsvísindasvið (HÍ)
School of Social Sciences (UI)
Deild: Félagsráðgjafardeild (HÍ)
Faculty of Social Work (UI)
ISSN: 1670-0244
Efnisorð: Framhaldsskólanemar; Námsörðugleikar; Stuðningsúrræði; Upper secondary school; Learning difficulties; Risk and resilience; Support from parents; Support from school
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/179

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Tilvitnun:

Sigrún Harðardóttir og Guðrún Kristinsdóttir. (2016). Námserfiðleikar og velgengni í námi: Um mikilvægi stuðnings. Netla – Veftímarit um uppeldi og menntun.

Útdráttur:

 
Í greininni er fjallað um stöðu nemenda sem eiga við námsvanda að stríða innan skólakerfisins. Fyrri rannsóknir hafa sýnt að námserfiðleikar eru einn helsti áhættuþátturinn að baki brotthvarfi úr námi. Greint er frá niðurstöðum nýlegrar rannsóknar sem ætlað var að varpa ljósi á hvað nemendur með námserfiðleika telja að hafi haft áhrif á námsárangur þeirra. Byggt er á vistfræðikenningu Bronfenbrenners um gagnvirk áhrif foreldra, skóla og samfélags á þroska og aðlögun barna, og á öðrum rannsóknum sem sýna hvað hefur áhrif á líðan nemenda með námserfiðleika og námsframvindu þeirra. Tekin voru viðtöl við tíu ungmenni sem áttu við námserfiðleika að stríða alla skólagönguna en náðu þrátt fyrir það að ljúka námi í framhaldsskóla. Sjónarmið nemenda sjálfra eru nú í auknum mæli talin mikilvæg og viðtalsrannsóknir undanfarinna ára sýna að mörg börn og ungmenni tjá sig vel um eigin reynslu. Leitað var svara við eftirfarandi meginspurningum: Hver er reynsla nemenda með námserfiðleika af skólagöngu? Hvað stuðlar að jákvæðri námsframvindu á meðal nemenda með námserfiðleika? Í viðtölunum komu fram þrjú meginatriði: a) Erfiðleikar við að fá námsvandann viðurkenndan, b) tilhneiging til að aðgreina nemendur og flokka, og c) hvatning og stuðningur foreldra og skóla sem stuðlaði að seiglu og velgengni í námi. Seigla sem nemendur komu sér upp með stuðningi í nærumhverfinu virtist ráða mestu um aukna trú ungmennanna á eigin getu. Þetta varð til að þeim tókst að ljúka námi þrátt fyrir námserfiðleika. Í greininni er þessum niðurstöðum lýst og loks er fjallað um mikilvægi þess að tryggja farsælt nám allra á jafnréttisgrunni með því að skólar komi betur til móts við þann hóp nemenda sem gengur illa í námi.
 
Education is meant to increase individuals’ capabilities in dealing with challenges in everyday life and enabling them to provide for themselves. In recent years increased emphasis has been placed on equal rights to education for all and the provision of support to students with disabilities. Legislation governing Icelandic primary and secondary education bound these policies in law in 2008. Simultaneous with the policy change there has been an increase in clinical assessments of students with learning difficulties (LD) as well as provision of special educational support. However, scholars have argued that a clinical approach to identifying support needs can lead to undesirable school practices, such as labelling students with LD and segregating them. It may be more useful for schools to adopt a social approach to assessing support needs of disabled students. A social approach seeks to identify and understand students’ situations and looks for solutions and resources in their near environment, recognizing that social factors have an impact on students’ educational development and progress. For a long time students with LD have been defined as a vulnerable group at risk of dropping out of school. Thus it is important to seek knowledge and approaches which support students and increase their chances of completing secondary education. Research has shown that special educational support in compulsory school education and a general studies programme in upper secondary education has failed to prevent students with LD from dropping out of secondary education. Therefore, it is important to provide various types of support for students and thereby reduce the negative impact of risk factors on their education and foster their resilience in tackling the challenges they face. This article discusses the educational position of students who have learning difficulties (LD). Prior research identifies LD as one of the strongest risk factors influencing a high dropout rate in this group. The article discusses results from a recent study in Iceland which looked at factors that have an impact on educational progress from the perspectives of students with LD. The discussion draws on Bronfenbrenner’s systems theory by exploring the influence of parents, school and society on students’ development and integration at school. The discussion also draws on research which has explored the impact of emotional well-being on educational progress for these students. In recent years recognition of the importance of drawing on students’ own perspectives to improve policy and support for students with LD has increased. Interview research shows that a large number of children and young people with LD are indeed capable of expressing their views and experiences in a clear manner. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten youths who had learning difficulties but were able to complete upper secondary school. The main research questions were: What are the experiences of students with learning difficulties in regard to educational support and what contributed to their success at upper secondary school? Three main findings emerged: a) difficulty in getting recognition of the problem, b) the inclination to isolate and label the students and c) encouragement and support from parents and schools promoted students’ success and well-being in education. The results indicate that the educational experiences of students with LD are complex and shaped by many factors in their lives. Schools tend to emphasise clinical approaches to assessing students’ support needs and put less importance on assessing students’ strengths and efforts to succeed. Most of the young people stated that they appreciated receiving clinical assessments as that meant they were able to receive more support in their studies. However, they felt that the assessment also led to labelling and served to isolate them from peers, especially since the support teaching took place in a segregated place. The research results further indicated that the resilience shown by the students in coping with challenges was related to the support they received in their near environment, such as from family and staff at school. Support from their near environment was a key factor in influencing belief in their own capabilities and helping them to complete their studies. This article describes and discusses the research findings, and the important role of teachers and parents for supporting students with learning difficulties in order to ensure educational success and equality.
 

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