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Plasma biomarker profiles in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease

Plasma biomarker profiles in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease

Title: Plasma biomarker profiles in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease
Author: Johansson, Charlotte
Þórðardóttir, Steinunn
Laffita-Mesa, José
Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena
Zetterberg, Henrik
Blennow, Kaj
Graff, Caroline
Date: 2023-03-01
Language: English
Scope: 9
Department: Geriatric and Rehabilitation Services
Series: Brain; 146(3)
ISSN: 0006-8950
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awac399
Subject: Öldrunarlæknisfræði; Alzheimer Disease/metabolism; Amyloid beta-Peptides; Biomarkers; Genes, Dominant; Humans; tau Proteins
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3943

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Johansson , C , Þórðardóttir , S , Laffita-Mesa , J , Rodriguez-Vieitez , E , Zetterberg , H , Blennow , K & Graff , C 2023 , ' Plasma biomarker profiles in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease ' , Brain , vol. 146 , no. 3 , pp. 1132-1140 . https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awac399


Emerging plasma biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease might be non-invasive tools to trace early Alzheimer's disease-related abnormalities such as the accumulation of amyloid-beta peptides, neurofibrillary tau tangles, glial activation and neurodegeneration. It is, however, unclear which pathological processes in the CNS can be adequately detected by peripheral measurements and whether plasma biomarkers are equally applicable in both clinical and preclinical phases. Here we aimed to explore the timing and performance of plasma biomarkers in mutation carriers compared to non-carriers in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. Samples (n = 164) from mutation carriers (n = 33) and non-carriers (n = 42) in a Swedish cohort of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (APP p.KM670/671NL, APP p.E693G and PSEN1 p.H163Y) were included in explorative longitudinal analyses. Plasma phosphorylated tau (P-tau181), total tau (T-tau), neurofilament light chain (NfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) concentrations were measured with a single-molecule array method as previously described. Plasma biomarkers were additionally correlated to Alzheimer's disease core biomarkers in the CSF. Results from the longitudinal analyses confirmed that plasma P-tau181, NfL and GFAP concentrations were higher in mutation carriers compared to non-carriers. This change was observed in the presymptomatic phase and detectable first as an increase in GFAP approximately 10 years before estimated symptom onset, followed by increased levels of P-tau181 and NfL closer to expected onset. Plasma P-tau181 levels were correlated to levels of P-tau181 and T-tau in the CSF. Altogether, plasma P-tau181, GFAP and NfL seem to be feasible biomarkers to detect different Alzheimer's disease-related pathologies already in presymptomatic individuals. Interestingly, changes in plasma GFAP concentrations were detected prior to P-tau181 and NfL. Our results suggest that plasma GFAP might reflect Alzheimer's disease pathology upstream to accumulation of tangles and neurodegeneration. The implications of these findings need additional validation, in particular because of the limited sample size.


© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

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