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Environmental Impacts of Large-Scale Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Production in Hellisheidi Geothermal Park Iceland : Life Cycle Assessment

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dc.contributor.author Tzachor, Asaf
dc.contributor.author Smidt-Jensen, Asger
dc.contributor.author Ramel, Alfons
dc.contributor.author Geirsdóttir, Margrét
dc.date.accessioned 2022-12-21T01:05:19Z
dc.date.available 2022-12-21T01:05:19Z
dc.date.issued 2022-09-07
dc.identifier.citation Tzachor , A , Smidt-Jensen , A , Ramel , A & Geirsdóttir , M 2022 , ' Environmental Impacts of Large-Scale Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Production in Hellisheidi Geothermal Park Iceland : Life Cycle Assessment ' , Marine Biotechnology , vol. 24 , no. 5 , pp. 991-1001 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s10126-022-10162-8
dc.identifier.issn 1436-2228
dc.identifier.other PURE: 65514753
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: e9a542b8-24c4-44a8-a547-31f8cb746812
dc.identifier.other Scopus: 85137612501
dc.identifier.other unpaywall: 10.1007/s10126-022-10162-8
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3748
dc.description Funding Information: For supporting this study with information and advice, authors would like to thank Ms. Berglind Rán Ólafsdóttir, CEO, ON Power, Iceland; Mr. Kristinn Haflidason, General Manager of Vaxa Iceland; Mr. Tryggvi Jónsson, Mannvit Consulting Engineering, Iceland; and, Mr. Christian Honisch, Mannvit Consulting Engineering, Iceland. The authors thank Ms. Kristina Atanasova for designing the graphical abstract and figures for this article. Publisher Copyright: © 2022, The Author(s).
dc.description.abstract Spirulina algae (Spirulina platensis) cultivated in geothermally powered photobioreactors is here proposed as a potentially resource efficient, zero-carbon, and nutritious alternative to conventional beef meat. Employing a standard life cycle assessment, environmental impacts of large-scale Spirulina production in this facility are calculated. The production facility is sited in Orka náttúrunnar (ON Power) Geothermal Park, Iceland, and benefits from resource streams accessible through Hellisheiði (Hellisheidi) power station, including renewable electricity for illumination and power usage, hot and cold water streams for thermal management, freshwater for cultivation, and CO 2 for biofixation. During cultivation, GHG-intensive ammonia-based fertilizers are replaced with macronutrients sourced from natural open mines. LCA results show that production of 1 kg of wet edible biomass in this facility requires 0.0378 m 2 non-arable land, 8.36 m 3 fresh water and is carbon neutral with - 0.008 CO 2-eq GHG emissions (net zero). Compared with conventionally produced meat from beef cattle, Spirulina algae cultured in the ON Power Geothermal Park, referred to in this study as GeoSpirulina, requires less than 1% land and water and emits less than 1% GHGs. Considering food and nutritional security concerns, cultivation in a controlled environment agriculture system assures consistent nutritional profile year-round. Moreover, GeoSpirulina biomass assessed in this study contains all essential amino acids as well as essential vitamins and minerals. While keeping a balanced nutrition, for every kg beef meat replaced with one kg GeoSpirulina, the average consumer can save ~ 100 kg CO 2-eq GHGs. It is concluded that environmental impacts of GeoSpirulina production in the Hellisheidi facility are considerably lower than those of conventionally produced ruminants.
dc.format.extent 11
dc.format.extent 991-1001
dc.language.iso en
dc.relation.ispartofseries Marine Biotechnology; 24(5)
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Alternative protein
dc.subject Carbon neutrality
dc.subject Environmental impact
dc.subject Life cycle assessment
dc.subject Photobioreactors
dc.subject Spirulina
dc.subject Carbon/metabolism
dc.subject Ammonia/metabolism
dc.subject Vitamins/metabolism
dc.subject Biomass
dc.subject Amino Acids, Essential/metabolism
dc.subject Iceland
dc.subject Fertilizers
dc.subject Life Cycle Stages
dc.subject Carbon Dioxide/metabolism
dc.subject Animals
dc.subject Water/metabolism
dc.subject Cattle
dc.subject Environment
dc.subject Aquatic Science
dc.subject Biotechnology
dc.title Environmental Impacts of Large-Scale Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Production in Hellisheidi Geothermal Park Iceland : Life Cycle Assessment
dc.type /dk/atira/pure/researchoutput/researchoutputtypes/contributiontojournal/article
dc.description.version Peer reviewed
dc.identifier.pmid 36071348
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1007/s10126-022-10162-8
dc.relation.url http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85137612501&partnerID=8YFLogxK
dc.contributor.department Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition

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