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Viðhorf leikskólastarfsmanna til málörvunar barna sem hafa íslensku sem annað mál

Viðhorf leikskólastarfsmanna til málörvunar barna sem hafa íslensku sem annað mál


Title: Viðhorf leikskólastarfsmanna til málörvunar barna sem hafa íslensku sem annað mál
Alternative Title: Icelandic preschool staff attitudes towards language stimulation for children whose home language is other than Icelandic
Author: Ólafsdóttir, Sigríður
Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna Thelma
Runólfsdóttir, Jóhanna
Date: 2022-05-17
Language: Icelandic
Scope: 23
School: Menntavísindasvið
Department: Deild kennslu- og menntunarfræði
Læknadeild
Series: Netla; ()
ISSN: 1670-0244
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24270/netla.2022.4
Subject: Fjöltyngd börn; Leikskóli; Málörvun; Íslenska sem annað mál; Multilingual children; Preschool; Language stimulation; Icelandic as a Second Language; Menntun
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3465

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Citation:

Ólafsdóttir , S , Einarsdóttir , J T & Runólfsdóttir , J 2022 , ' Viðhorf leikskólastarfsmanna til málörvunar barna sem hafa íslensku sem annað mál ' , Netla . https://doi.org/10.24270/netla.2022.4

Abstract:

 
Niðurstöður íslenskra rannsókna benda til að leikskólabörn með annað heimamál en íslensku, ísl2 börn, nái almennt ekki góðum tökum á íslensku þrátt fyrir langan dvalartíma í leikskólum. Því er mikilvægt að kanna hvert viðhorf leikskólastarfsmanna er til þess hlutverks þeirra að gefa ísl2 börnum tækifæri til að læra íslensku með fjölbreytilegum leiðum. Markmið rannsóknarinnar var að kanna þekkingu, reynslu og faglegt sjálfstraust leikskólastarfsmanna til málörvunar ísl2 barna. Spurningalisti var sendur til 160 leikskólastarfsmanna í Sveitarfélaginu Árborg og var svarhlutfall 44%. Niðurstöður sýndu að ófaglært starfsfólk taldi sig verja meiri tíma með ísl2 börnum en leikskólakennarar. Þátttakendur töldu öll að samræður, söngur og lestur væru mikilvægir þættir málörvunar, ásamt vinnu með orðaforða. Tæplega helmingur svarenda fullyrti að mikilvægt væri að starfsfólk hefði færni til að veita börnunum markvissa málörvun í heimamálum þeirra. Rúmlega helmingur hafði gott faglegt sjálfstraust en fimmtungur taldi sig ekki hafa næga þekkingu til að sinna málörvun ísl2 barna. Meira en helmingur svarenda taldi sig vel geta stutt börnin við að efla íslenskufærni sína eins og þau helst vildu, en aðeins fimmtungur háskólamenntaðra leikskólakennara. Hindranir voru of mörg börn og of fáir starfsmenn, of lítill tími og skortur á faglegum stuðningi. Næstum helmingur svarenda með leikskólakennaramenntun á háskólastigi taldi sig ekki hafa fengið nægan undirbúning í leikskólakennaranáminu til að veita ísl2 börnum málörvun. Niðurstöður benda til að bæta þurfi fræðslu til starfsfólks leikskóla um mikilvæga þætti sem skipta sköpum í starfsháttum með ísl2 börnum, og því séu jafnframt skapaðar aðstæður og faglegur stuðningur til að mæta þörfum þessa barnahóps. Hætta er á að tilfinning um að geta ekki sinnt málörvun ísl2 barna nægilega vel hafi neikvæð áhrif á starfshætti með börnunum. Málfærni barna eykst í gagnvirkum mállegum samskiptum við starfsfólk og jafnaldra og við virka þátttöku í innihaldsríku leikskólastarfi. Góð íslenskufærni er síðan undirstaða farsællar námsframvindu í íslenskum skólum.
 
Adequate Icelandic language skills are crucial for children’s development and overall success in Icelandic schools. Research has shown that children in Icelandic preschools, whose home language is other than Icelandic (referred to as ísl2 children), lack Icelandic language proficiency, and are far behind age peers whose Icelandic is their first language (referred to as ísl1 children) (Aneta Figlarska et al., 2017; Hjördís Hafsteinsdóttir et al., 2022; Kriselle Lou Suson Jónsdóttir et al,, 2018). In this study, preschool staff’s knowledge, and attitudes towards language stimulation for ísl2 children were studied as well as their experiences and professional confidence. An online questionnaire was sent to all preschool staff in Árborg municipality who worked in early childhood education. The questionnaire was sent to 160 email addresses and 70 responses were received, giving a response rate of 44%. Participants had varying educational background and qualifications: 33.3% had a university degree in early childhood education, 24.6% had different university degrees related to education, 13.0% had another type of university degree, and 34.8% had no formal education. Results revealed that participants without formal education spent more time with ísl2 children than those with a university degree in early childhood education. In the former group 54.4% claimed they spent more than 30 minutes each day with each ísl2 child, compared to 30.8% of the latter group. Almost half of the university educated preschool teachers (46.2%) said that they spent only 0–10 minutes daily with each ísl2 child. Roughly half of responding preschool teachers believed that ísl2 children were in general acquiring good language stimulation in Icelandic preschools. All participants believed that oral communication, songs and reading were important aspects of ísl2 children’s language stimulation, as well as working explicitly with vocabulary. In addition, more than a third of the respondents (41.7%) claimed that it was important that the staff were able to give ísl2 children language stimulation in their home languages. Roughly half of the participants (53.9%) had good professional confidence relating to language stimulation for ísl2 children, but a fifth believed they did not have enough knowledge to give ísl2 children language stimulation. Over half of the participants (60%) claimed they were able to give the children the language input needed, but only a fifth of those with a university degree in early childhood education. The main hindrances were too many children and too few staff members in each classroom, limited time available to focus on this issue, and lack of professional support. Almost half of the participants with early childhood university degrees (45.5%) believed they were not adequately prepared by their studies to support ísl2 children’s language development. Judging from these results, there is a sense of insecurity amongst preschool staff relating to their language communication and stimulation with ísl2 children. The results also show that preschool staff need to be better informed about what school activities are important in ísl2 children’s language stimulation (Aukrust, 2007; Aukrust et al., 2011; Bowers & Vasilyeva, 2011; Dickinson & Porche, 2011; Kim & Yun, 2019; Leseman et al., 2019; Romeo et al., 2018; Snow, 2016; Sólveig Reynisdóttir & Sigríður Ólafsdóttir, 2022). Preschool staff need to be aware that first language stimulation should not, according to research, be the main focus of ísl2 children’s early years’ education in Icelandic preschools. This is especially important given that only half of the participants believed they were able to support these children well enough in acquiring Icelandic language skills. Findings indicate that preschool staff, both those with a university degree and those without qualifications, need better professional support and more favorable working conditions so they will be able to give the ísl2 children the effective interactive language communication the children need and deserve (Mennta- og menningarmálaráðuneytið, 2011). Solid Icelandic language skills are a prerequisite for their educational wellbeing in Icelandic schools (Jóhanna T. Einarsdóttir et al., 2016; Sigríður Ólafsdóttir et al., 2016).
 

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