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Spatio-temporal assessment of illicit drug use at large scale : evidence from 7 years of international wastewater monitoring

Spatio-temporal assessment of illicit drug use at large scale : evidence from 7 years of international wastewater monitoring

Title: Spatio-temporal assessment of illicit drug use at large scale : evidence from 7 years of international wastewater monitoring
Author: González-Mariño, Iria
Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio
Alygizakis, Nikiforos A.
Andrés-Costa, Maria Jesús
Bade, Richard
Bannwarth, Anne
Barron, Leon P.
Been, Frederic
Benaglia, Lisa
Berset, Jean Daniel
... 71 more authors Show all authors
Date: 2020-01-01
Language: English
Scope: 12
Department: Faculty of Medicine
Series: Addiction; 115(1)
ISSN: 0965-2140
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14767
Subject: Amphetamine; cocaine; ecstasy/MDMA; illicit drugs; methamphetamine; wastewater-based epidemiology; Medicine (miscellaneous); Psychiatry and Mental Health
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3408

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González-Mariño , I , Baz-Lomba , J A , Alygizakis , N A , Andrés-Costa , M J , Bade , R , Bannwarth , A , Barron , L P , Been , F , Benaglia , L , Berset , J D , Bijlsma , L , Bodík , I , Brenner , A , Brock , A L , Burgard , D A , Castrignanò , E , Celma , A , Christophoridis , C E , Covaci , A , Delémont , O , Devoogt , P , Devault , D A , Dias , M J , Emke , E , Esseiva , P , Fatta-Kassinos , D , Fedorova , G , Fytianos , K , Gerber , C , Grabic , R , Gracia-Lor , E , Grüner , S , Gunnar , T , Hapeshi , E , Heath , E , Helm , B , Hernández , F , Kankaanpaa , A , Karolak , S , Kasprzyk-Hordern , B , Krizman-Matasic , I , Lai , F Y , Lechowicz , W , Lopes , A , de Alda , M L , López-García , E , Löve , A S C , Mastroianni , N , McEneff , G L , Montes , R , Munro , K , Nefau , T , Oberacher , H , O’brien , J W , Oertel , R , Olafsdottir , K , Picó , Y , Plósz , B G , Polesel , F , Postigo , C , Quintana , J B , Ramin , P , Reid , M J , Rice , J , Rodil , R , Salgueiro-Gonzàlez , N , Schubert , S , Senta , I , Simões , S M , Sremacki , M M , Styszko , K , Terzic , S , Thomaidis , N S , Thomas , K V , Tscharke , B J , Udrisard , R , van Nuijs , A L N , Yargeau , V , Zuccato , E , Castiglioni , S & Ort , C 2020 , ' Spatio-temporal assessment of illicit drug use at large scale : evidence from 7 years of international wastewater monitoring ' , Addiction , vol. 115 , no. 1 , pp. 109-120 . https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14767


Background and aims: Wastewater-based epidemiology is an additional indicator of drug use that is gaining reliability to complement the current established panel of indicators. The aims of this study were to: (i) assess spatial and temporal trends of population-normalized mass loads of benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in raw wastewater over 7 years (2011–17); (ii) address overall drug use by estimating the average number of combined doses consumed per day in each city; and (iii) compare these with existing prevalence and seizure data. Design: Analysis of daily raw wastewater composite samples collected over 1 week per year from 2011 to 2017. Setting and Participants: Catchment areas of 143 wastewater treatment plants in 120 cities in 37 countries. Measurements: Parent substances (amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA) and the metabolites of cocaine (benzoylecgonine) and of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) were measured in wastewater using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Daily mass loads (mg/day) were normalized to catchment population (mg/1000 people/day) and converted to the number of combined doses consumed per day. Spatial differences were assessed world-wide, and temporal trends were discerned at European level by comparing 2011–13 drug loads versus 2014–17 loads. Findings: Benzoylecgonine was the stimulant metabolite detected at higher loads in southern and western Europe, and amphetamine, MDMA and methamphetamine in East and North–Central Europe. In other continents, methamphetamine showed the highest levels in the United States and Australia and benzoylecgonine in South America. During the reporting period, benzoylecgonine loads increased in general across Europe, amphetamine and methamphetamine levels fluctuated and MDMA underwent an intermittent upsurge. Conclusions: The analysis of wastewater to quantify drug loads provides near real-time drug use estimates that globally correspond to prevalence and seizure data.


Corrigendum: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/add.15016 This study was supported by the following countries, institutions and projects Australia: Thyne Reid foundation; Canada: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC); Iceland: The Icelandic Research Fund (Grant number 163049–051); Slovenia: Slovene Research Agency (funding Project L1–9191); Spain: MINECO/AEI projects (CTM2014–56628-C3–2-R, CTQ2015–65603-P, CTM2016–81935-REDT, CTM2017–84763-C3–2-R), Galician Council of Culture, Education and Universities (ED481D 2017/003); UK: Environmental Sustainability Knowledge Transfer Network, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and Thermo Fisher Scientific (CASE industrial scholarship for K. Munro, Ref.: EP/J502029/1). European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA); EU International Training Network SEWPROF (Marie Curie-FP7-PEOPLE, grant number 317205); COST Action ES1307 supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology); WATCH (Wastewater Analysis of Traces of illicit drug-related Chemicals for law enforcement and public Health DG migration and Home affairs - HOME/2015/ISFP/PR/DRUG/0062). Sampling support and provision of catchment information Austria: Klemens Geiger and Michael Schlapp; Belgium: Jonathan Phariseau, Bart Coene, Luc Van Os, Peter Nys, Dieter Lemaire, Jean-François Mougel, Patrick Vantroyen and Karel Claes; Croatia: Marin Ganjto; Czech Republic: Jiri Stara and Robert Hrich Brněnské; France: Véronique Bremont; Italy: Roberto Mazzini and Francesca Pizza (Milan), Francesco Avolio (Bologna), Fabrizio Moratto and Sergio Ghezzi (Gorizia), Rosanna Brienza and Simona Panariello (Potenza), Pier Paolo Abis and Antonia Attanasio (Bari), Antonella Cicala (Palermo); Norway: Pia Ryrfors; Portugal: João Goulão, José Martins, Pedro Alvaro and Fátima Paixão; Slovakia: Silvia Antalová and Jozef Tichy; Spain: Begoña Martínez López, Cristian Mesa, Santiago Querol Rodriguez, Fernando Llavador, Enrique Albors and Gloria Fayos; the Netherlands: Alex Veltman, Peter Theijssen, Peter van Dijk, Stefan Wijers, Mark Stevens, Ferry de Wilde. Analytical support Australia: Maulik Ghetia; Cyprus: Popi Karaolia; Greece: Nikoilaos Raikos; Spain: Ana Maria Botero-Coy, Clara Boix, Alberto Celma, Jorge Pitarch, Inés Racamonde and Eddie Fonseca; Italy: Emma Gracia-Lor, Nikolaos I. Rousis and Noelia Salgueiro-Gonzalez. Data repository and data screening Eawag: Harald von Waldow; EMCDDA: Renate Hochwieser, Liesbeth Vandam, João Matias and Federica Mathis. Publisher Copyright: © 2019 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction

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