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Að tilheyra, taka þátt og læra í leikskóla margbreytileikans : Evrópuverkefni um menntun ungra barna án aðgreiningar

Að tilheyra, taka þátt og læra í leikskóla margbreytileikans : Evrópuverkefni um menntun ungra barna án aðgreiningar


Title: Að tilheyra, taka þátt og læra í leikskóla margbreytileikans : Evrópuverkefni um menntun ungra barna án aðgreiningar
Alternative Title: Enabling all children to belong, be engaged and to learn
Author: Hreinsdóttir, Anna Magnea
Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna
Date: 2019-06-11
Language: Icelandic
Scope: 19
Department: Deild kennslu- og menntunarfræði
Series: Netla; 2019()
ISSN: 1670-0244
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24270/netla.2019.7
Subject: Leikskólastarf; Skóli margbreytileikans; Sérþarfir; Námsumhverfi; Preschool; School of Diversity; Special needs education
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3352

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Citation:

Hreinsdóttir , A M & Ragnarsdóttir , H 2019 , ' Að tilheyra, taka þátt og læra í leikskóla margbreytileikans : Evrópuverkefni um menntun ungra barna án aðgreiningar ' , Netla , bind. 2019 . https://doi.org/10.24270/netla.2019.7

Abstract:

 
Gæði menntunar ungra barna eru ofarlega á baugi hjá stefnumótendum og hafa nýverið orðið forgangsmál hjá mörgum alþjóðlegum og evrópskum stofnunum. Vísbendingar eru um að almennt hafi ekki tekist að þróa áherslur í skólastarfi á Íslandi sem henta margbreytilegum barnahópi og að of mikil áhersla hafi verið lögð á greiningar sem forsendu fyrir stuðningi við börn með sérþarfir. Í þessu verkefni var miðað að því að koma auga á, greina og stuðla að gæðamenntun ungra barna án aðgreiningar. Lykilspurningin sem leitað var svara við var: Hver eru aðaleinkenni námsumhverfis ungra barna í leikskóla margbreytileikans? Byggir verkefnið á hugtakinu skóli margbreytileikans sem vísar til margbreytileika menningar, kynhegðunar, tungu og trúar og beinir athyglinni að fjölbreytni nemenda og skóla í stað þess að aðgreina nám, kennslu, skóla eða nemendur. Verkefnið var unnið á vegum Evrópumiðstöðvar um nám án aðgreiningar og sérþarfir á árunum 2015 til 2017. Þátttakendur voru 62 sérfræðingar frá 28 Evrópulöndum sem hittust reglulega, söfnuðu gögnum, greindu þau og heimsóttu valda leikskóla í átta Evrópulöndum. Niðurstöður verkefnisins gefa vísbendingar um hvernig þróa má farsælt leikskólastarf. Þar má nefna gott aðgengi að leikskóla fyrir öll börn, sérstaklega viðkvæma hópa, svo sem börn með fötlun, börn sem búa við fátækt og börn af erlendum uppruna; vel menntað starfsfólk; aðgengi að símenntun; faglega stjórnun; stuðning við hæfi fyrir stjórnendur; að fjölskyldur séu virkir samstarfsaðilar; heildstæða, sveigjanlega og barnmiðaða námskrá; reglulegt mat á námi barna og leikskólastarfi; og opinbera fjármögnun til að tryggja gott aðgengi allra barna að leikskólanum. Afrakstur verkefnisins er annars vegar líkan sem þróað var um vistkerfi leikskóla margbreytileikans. Hins vegar eru leiðbeiningar með spurningum um námsumhverfi leikskóla margbreytileikans sem nýta má til að skoða og ígrunda hvort umhverfi leikskólans taki mið af margbreytilegum barnahópi. Niðurstöður verkefnisins geta nýst stefnumótendum, rannsakendum og starfsfólki leikskóla til að auka gæði leikskólastarfs fyrir öll börn.
 
Quality in early childhood education is a prominent concern for policymakers and has recently become a priority for many international and European organisations. Given these international concerns, the European Agency undertook a three-year project (2015–2017) entitled Inclusive Early Childhood Education (IECE). It aimed to identify, analyse and subsequently promote the main characteristics of quality inclusive early childhood education for all children from three years of age to the start of primary education. This provided an opportunity to examine more closely how, within an inclusive perspective, IECE provisions across Europe are addressing the quality principles already identified by the European Commission (2014) and the OECD (2015). There are indications, among other things, that it has generally not been possible to develop activities in preschools in Iceland that suit a diverse group of children and that too much emphasis has been placed on diagnoses as a prerequisite for support for children with special needs. In this project, the aim was to identify, analyse and promote the main quality of inclusive education for young children. The key question asked was: What are the main characteristics in the learning environment for young children in a preschool of diversity? The project builds on the concept of a school of diversity that refers to a diverse culture, behaviour, language and religion, and focuses on the diversity of students and schools, rather than segregating learning, teaching, schools or students. The project was grounded in the relevant research and policy literature, data collected through observations of example IECE settings (altogether nine cases) in eight European countries, descriptions of examples from practitioners across Europe, and questionnaires on national developments in IECE in all European Agency member countries. Sixty-two IECE country experts from across Europe contributed to the project. They participated in data collection and analysis, in observations and discussions during the case study visits to different countries, and in other project meetings. These led to the project’s final insights and contributions to IECE. The analysis of the project data strongly suggests that, from an inclusion perspective, the most important outcome of quality provision is to enable all children to actively participate in IECE. In this way, all children – including those vulnerable to exclusion – are equally valued, supported and enabled to progress along with their peers. The findings of the project give various indications on how to develop inclusive preschool work and what needs to be considered. First, there is good access to preschool for all children, especially vulnerable groups, such as children with disabilities, children living in poverty and children of foreign origin. Emphasis is on well-educated staff who have good access to lifelong learning. Professional management is important and that managers receive appropriate support. In addition, there is a strong emphasis on positive relationships with the family and it is viewed as an active partner. The preschool curriculum is flexible and child-oriented, and the children’s education and preschool activities are evaluated on a regular basis. Finally, preschool public funding is important to ensure good access for all children. The findings of the project were applied in two ways: A model of a preschool ecosystem of diversity was developed which identifies the factors considered to contribute to an environment that supports the preschool children’s diversity. Secondly, guidelines with questions about the learning environment in the preschool of diversity were developed, which preschool teachers and other staff can use to examine and reflect on whether the environment of the preschool, both subjective and objective, takes into account the diversity of the children in the group. The findings of the project can be used by policymakers, researchers and administrators, teachers and preschool staff in their efforts to increase the quality of preschool activities for all children.
 

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