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Association between adverse childhood experiences and premenstrual disorders : a cross-sectional analysis of 11,973 women

Association between adverse childhood experiences and premenstrual disorders : a cross-sectional analysis of 11,973 women


Title: Association between adverse childhood experiences and premenstrual disorders : a cross-sectional analysis of 11,973 women
Author: Yang, Qian
Þórðardóttir, Edda Björk
Hauksdóttir, Arna   orcid.org/0000-0002-4253-1059
Aspelund, Thor   orcid.org/0000-0002-7998-5433
Jakobsdóttir, Jóhanna
Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur
Tómasson, Gunnar
Rúnarsdóttir, Harpa
Daníelsdóttir, Hilda Björk
Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R
... 4 more authors Show all authors
Date: 2022-02-21
Language: English
Scope: 60
Department: Faculty of Medicine
Internal Medicine and Emergency Services
Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies
Series: BMC Medicine; 20(1)
ISSN: 1741-7015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-022-02275-7
Subject: Adult; Adverse Childhood Experiences; Anxiety Disorders; Child; Child Abuse/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Prospective Studies; Childhood maltreatment; Violence; PMS; PMDD; Premenstrual disorders; Household dysfunction; Adverse childhood experiences; Medicine (all)
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3341

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Citation:

Yang , Q , Þórðardóttir , E B , Hauksdóttir , A , Aspelund , T , Jakobsdóttir , J , Halldorsdottir , T , Tómasson , G , Rúnarsdóttir , H , Daníelsdóttir , H B , Bertone-Johnson , E R , Sjölander , A , Fang , F , Lu , D & Valdimarsdóttir , U A 2022 , ' Association between adverse childhood experiences and premenstrual disorders : a cross-sectional analysis of 11,973 women ' , BMC Medicine , vol. 20 , no. 1 , 60 , pp. 60 . https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-022-02275-7

Abstract:

Background: Childhood abuse and neglect have been associated with premenstrual disorders (PMDs), including premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). However, the associations of other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the cumulative number of ACEs with PMDs remain to be explored. Methods: To evaluate the associations of the cumulative number and types of ACEs with PMDs, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis with a subsample of menstruating women within the Stress-And-Gene-Analysis (SAGA) cohort, assessed for PMDs and ACEs (N=11,973). The cumulative and individual exposure of 13 types of ACEs was evaluated by a modified ACE-International Questionnaire. A modified version of the Premenstrual Symptom Screening Tool was used to identify probable cases of PMDs, further sub-grouped into PMS and PMDD. Prevalence ratios (PRs) of PMDs in relation to varying ACEs were estimated using Poisson regression. Results: At a mean age of 34.0 years (standard deviation (SD) 9.1), 3235 (27%) met the criteria of probable PMDs, including 2501 (21%) for PMS and 734 (6%) for PMDD. The number of ACEs was linearly associated with PMDs (fully-adjusted PR 1.12 per ACE, 95% CI 1.11–1.13). Specifically, the PR for PMDs was 2.46 (95% CI 2.21–2.74) for women with 4 or more ACEs compared with women with no ACEs. A stronger association was observed for probable PMDD compared to PMS (p for difference <0.001). The associations between ACEs and PMDs were stronger among women without PTSD, anxiety, or depression, and without childhood deprivation and were stronger among women a lower level of social support (p for interaction<0.001). All types of ACEs were positively associated with PMDs (PRs ranged from 1.11 to 1.51); the associations of sexual abuse, emotional neglect, family violence, mental illness of a household member, and peer and collective violence were independent of other ACEs. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that childhood adverse experiences are associated with PMDs in a dose-dependent manner. If confirmed by prospective data, our findings support the importance of early intervention for girls exposed to ACEs to minimize risks of PMDs and other morbidities in adulthood.

Description:

Funding Information: Open access funding provided by Karolinska Institute. The work is supported by the Erik and Edith Fernström Foundation (No. 2019-00415 to Dr. Yang), the Chinese Scholarship Council (No. 201700260289 to Dr. Yang), the Icelandic Research Fund (No. 185287-051 to Dr. Þórðardóttir), the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE) (No. 2020-00971 to Dr. Lu), the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet) (No. 2020-01003 to Dr. Lu), and the Grant of Excellence from the Icelandic Research Fund (No. 163362-051 and 218274-051 to Dr. Valdimarsdóttir) and European Research Council (No. 726413 to Dr. Valdimarsdóttir). Researchers are independent of the funders. The funding has no role in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript. Publisher Copyright: © 2022, The Author(s).

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