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Kófið og leikskólinn : „Þetta var mögnuð „tilraun“ til að sjá gæðastarf verða til við skrítnar aðstæður“

Kófið og leikskólinn : „Þetta var mögnuð „tilraun“ til að sjá gæðastarf verða til við skrítnar aðstæður“


Title: Kófið og leikskólinn : „Þetta var mögnuð „tilraun“ til að sjá gæðastarf verða til við skrítnar aðstæður“
Alternative Title: COVID-19 and preschool practice‘A great “experiment” to see quality practice develop in strange situations’
Author: Sigurðardóttir, Ingibjörg Ósk
Mörk, Svava Björg
Date: 2021-02-18
Language: Icelandic
Scope: 16
Department: Deild kennslu- og menntunarfræði
Series: Netla; ()
ISSN: 1670-0244
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24270/serritnetla.2020.20
Subject: COVID-19; Leikskólastarf; Gæðastarf; Leikur; Hlutverk; Leikskólakennarar; COVID-19; Preschool Practice; Play; Preschool teachers; Role; Quality
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3317

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Citation:

Sigurðardóttir , I Ó & Mörk , S B 2021 , ' Kófið og leikskólinn : „Þetta var mögnuð „tilraun“ til að sjá gæðastarf verða til við skrítnar aðstæður“ ' , Netla , bls. 1-16 . https://doi.org/10.24270/serritnetla.2020.20

Abstract:

 
Leikskólastarf getur verið eins ólíkt á milli leikskóla og þeir eru margir, enda stjórnast dagskipulag hvers leikskóla af áherslum og sýn þeirra er þar starfa. Sýn starfsfólks á nám og börn endurspeglar áherslur þeirra í starfi. Nýlegar rannsóknir benda á að það sé mikilvægt að hafa jafnvægi á milli athafna sem stýrt er af starfsfólki og athafna sem börnin stýra. Í þessu samhengi er einnig mikilvægt að taka tillit til þarfa og áhuga hvers barns þegar skipuleggja á leikskólastarfið. Jafnframt þarf að taka mið af réttindum barna og gefa þeim tækifæri til að hafa áhrif á nám sitt. Markmið rannsóknarinnar sem hér er sagt frá var að skoða áhrif takmarkana á leikskólastarf vegna fyrstu bylgju COVID-19 faraldursins, á leik barna og hlutverk leikskólakennara og annars starfsfólks. Jafnframt að skoða hvaða lærdóm mætti draga af reynslunni af takmörkununum. Gögnum var safnað með blönduðum aðferðum (e. mixed methods), annars vegar í gegnum einstaklingsviðtöl við leikskólastjóra og deildarstjóra, og hins vegar í gegnum spurningalista sem voru sendir út til 248 leikskóla um allt land. Niðurstöður benda til þess að takmarkanirnar hafi haft töluverð áhrif á leikskólastarf í landinu. Stjórnendur töldu að starfið hefði einkennst af meiri gæðum. Þeir töldu einnig að áhrif takmarkana hefðu skilað sér í aukinni vellíðan barna og fullorðinna. Takmarkanirnar urðu þó til þess að skerða þurfti aðgengi barnanna að leikefni. Þó að stjórnendur nefndu að ný vinatengsl hefðu myndast í barnahópnum þá kom einnig fram að einhver börn söknuðu vina sinna þegar takmörkun var á viðveru barnanna. Einhverjir starfsmenn upplifðu einnig einmanaleika þar sem samgangur á milli þeirra var takmarkaður. Rannsóknin er mikilvægt framlag til leikskólasamfélagsins og eykur skilning á þeim áhrifum sem takmarkanir á skólastarfi vegna fyrstu bylgju COVID-19 höfðu á leikskólastarf. Niðurstöðurnar benda til þess að mikilvægt sé að rýna í skipulag og starfshætti leikskóla landsins og huga að hvernig hægt sé að tryggja gæðastarf með leikskólabörnum.
 
In Iceland, although all preschools operate in accordance with National Curriculum Guidelines and the Preschool Act (lög um leikskóla nr. 90/2008), their daily schedules can vary depending upon each school’s priorities and the teachers’ views on how children learn. However, whereas some scholars stress the importance of schedules at preschools that balance the lead activities of teachers and children, others have posited that daily schedules are a means of control used by educators at preschools. In response, and in line with the emphasis on giving children the opportunity to influence their education in the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child, the heightened importance of children’s rights has guided preschools in Iceland in reorganizing their practices to consider children’s needs and interests. Against this background, the aim of our study was to illustrate how the limitations in schooling that followed the first wave of COVID-19 influenced preschool practice in Iceland from the perspectives of preschool leaders. Those limitations, going into effect on 16 March and lasting more than 7 weeks until 4 May, were implemented differently in each municipality in Iceland, while nationwide preschool practice was limited across the country. Data were gathered by following a mixed-methods approach. On the one hand, eight individual interviews, each lasting 15–65 minutes, with preschool principals and preschool head teachers were conducted in April 2020 during the period of limitations. On the other, preliminary findings from the interviews facilitated a more targeted data collection via a questionnaire distributed shortly after the preschools fully reopened following the period of limitations in June 2020. The questionnaire was sent to 248 preschool principals in Iceland, 172 of whom responded, or a response rate of 69%. Participants were asked whether and, if so, then how the limitations due to COVID-19 had influenced children’s play and the role of preschool teachers, as well as whether and, if so, then how those limitations would influence preschool practices in the future and what professionals might learn from the experience. The findings suggest that the limitations in schooling during the first wave of COVID-19 considerably influenced preschool practices. During interviews and in questionnaires, participants stated that preschool practices were of higher quality during the first wave of COVID-19 than before. This was largely because fewer children attended preschool each day and they were in smaller groups in each play area. In addition, participants believed that the limitations had heightened the well-being of the children and the adults, as well as promoting changes in daily schedules that cultivated a more relaxed atmosphere. For example, this resulted in less sickness within the staff group. Although the limitations also restricted children’s access to play- and learning materials, such restrictions did not affect their play or well-being. However, some participants mentioned that because of more focus on cleaning and disinfection, in line with regulations from authorities, some preschool teachers found they had less time to take care of the children. Beyond that, whereas participants noted new friendships emerging within groups of children during the period of limitations, they also observed that some children missed peers who were no longer in their class group. Finally, some educators reported experiencing loneliness due to being unable to communicate with their peers as freely as they had before the limitations. Altogether, the study makes an important contribution to the preschool community by providing knowledge and understanding as to how the first wave of COVID-19 influenced preschool practices, at least in Iceland, and as to how it may continue to alter such practices in the future. In that light, the findings can also inform further reflections on how practices at preschools are organized and which ones are prioritized.
 

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