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Gildismat og sýn starfsfólks leikskóla á fullgildi í fjölbreyttum barnahópi

Gildismat og sýn starfsfólks leikskóla á fullgildi í fjölbreyttum barnahópi


Title: Gildismat og sýn starfsfólks leikskóla á fullgildi í fjölbreyttum barnahópi
Alternative Title: Preschool Educators’ Values and Perspectives on Belonging in Diverse Groups of Children
Author: Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna
Rúnarsdóttir, Eyrún María
Date: 2021-04-12
Language: Icelandic
Scope: 21
Department: Deild kennslu- og menntunarfræði
Deild menntunar og margbreytileika
Series: Netla; ()
ISSN: 1670-0244
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24270/netla.2021.2
Subject: Gildismat; Starfsfólk leikskóla; Fullgildi; Börn með fjölbreyttan tungumála- og menningarbakgrunn; Starfshættir; Leikskólar; Belonging; educators' values; Children with diverse language and cultural background; Preschool Practice; Belonging; educators' values; Children with diverse language and cultural background; Preschool Practice
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3266

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Citation:

Einarsdóttir , J & Rúnarsdóttir , E M 2021 , ' Gildismat og sýn starfsfólks leikskóla á fullgildi í fjölbreyttum barnahópi ' , Netla . https://doi.org/10.24270/netla.2021.2

Abstract:

 
Tengsl sem leikskólabörn mynda við önnur börn og kennara sína eru lykilatriði í námi þeirra og vellíðan. Myndist góð tengsl skapast sú tilfinning að tilheyra í leikskólasamfélaginu. Hugtakið fullgildi vísar til þátttöku, félagslegra tengsla og þeirrar tilfinningar að tilheyra. Rannsóknir sýna að börn af erlendum uppruna geta orðið utanveltu í jafningjahópi og að stuðningur starfsfólks getur skipt sköpum við að stuðla að fullgildi barna með erlendan bakgrunn. Markmið rannsóknarinnar sem hér er kynnt var að varpa ljósi á sýn og gildismat starfsfólks leikskóla á fullgildi í leikskólastarfi og valdastöðu barna með fjölbreyttan tungumála- og menningarbakgrunn í jafningjahópi. Jafnframt var skoðað hvort sýn starfsfólks var ólík eftir menntun þess og starfsreynslu. Gagna var aflað með rafrænum spurningalista sem starfsmenn 143 leikskóla af öllu landinu svöruðu. Um helmingur svarenda var leikskólakennarar og/eða með BA-gráðu, fjórðungur hafði lokið meistaragráðu eða diplómanámi að loknu BA-námi og fjórðungur hafði framhaldsskólapróf eða aðra menntun. Starfsfólkið stefndi almennt að því að öll börn væru fullgildir þátttakendur í barnahópi, að þau væru viðurkennd „eins og þau eru“ og það kaus að hafa foreldra með í ráðum um starfið. Greina mátti meiri trú á hæfni barna til að taka þátt í og stuðla að fullgildi meðal þeirra sem höfðu leikskólakennaramenntun og/eða meistaragráðu og hinir síðarnefndu lögðu jafnframt meiri áherslu á samskipti og leik barna sem leið til fullgildis. Starfsfólkið varð helst vart við að tungumál gæti leitt til útilokunar sumra barna í jafningjahópi og hafði áhyggjur af stöðu barna með annan tungumála- og menningarbakgrunn. Vilji var til að stuðla að fullgildri þátttöku þessa hóps með auknum skilningi og umræðu um fjölbreytileika ásamt áherslu á vinatengsl.
 
Preschool children’s relationships with their peers and their educators are essential for their education and well-being. If these relationships are strong, children experience a feeling of belonging to their preschool community. This study is informed by the concept of ‘belonging’ (Yuval-Davis, 2006; Juutinen, 2018). It refers to participation and relationships and the feeling of belonging to a group of children in preschool. With increasing diversity in the preschool population, it is important to understand how preschool educators support children’s belonging. The aim of the study is to shed light on educators’ values and perspectives on children’s belonging in preschool. The study also explored whether diverse views on children and belonging were mirrored in the educators’ responses and how they saw the power positions of children with diverse language and cultural backgrounds. The research questions are as follows: 1. Do the participants have different perspectives on children and belonging? 2. Which values are reflected by the educators’ perspectives and practices on belonging? 3. How do the educators see their role in supporting children and families to foster belonging in preschool? 4. What are the educators’ perspectives on the power positions of children with diverse language and cultural backgrounds? Globalization and increased diversity have a formative influence on educators’ practices. Icelandic society has evolved during a short period of time, from a homogeneous society to a diverse society. Every year the number of preschool children with diverse language and cultural backgrounds increases and thus, during a short period of time, preschools have become intercultural arenas. In 2009, 1,614 preschool children had a home language other than Icelandic; by 2019, this number increased to 2,713 children (Hagstofa Íslands, 2020a). Research has shown that children with foreign backgrounds are in danger of being left out of their peer group and, thus, the support of educators can be crucial for their belonging in the preschool community (Eyrún María Rúnarsdóttir & Svava Rán Valgeirsdóttir, 2019; Jóhanna Einarsdóttir & Sara M. Ólafsdóttir, 2020a, 2020b; Sadownik, 2018). Data was gathered through an electronic survey which 143 preschool educators in Iceland answered. Approximately half of the respondents were preschool teachers and/or had a bachelor’s degree, one fourth had completed a master’s degree or a diploma following a bachelor’s degree, and one fourth had high school diploma or other education. The findings indicate convergence in the views and values of the participants, especially regarding their perspectives on the competences of children and practices to support belonging in preschools. Responses varied according to education level and period of employment. However, most participants replied that their aim was for all children to be included in the group and for all children to be accepted “as they are.” Most of the educators also felt that parents should be consulted and expressed their willingness to include parents in the preschool practices. This is consistent with the national curriculum guidelines for preschool emphasis (Mennta- og menningarmálaráðuneytið, 2012). In the educators’ responses, their perspectives on children’s competences and abilities to influence the preschool pedagogy were evident. Those who had preschool teacher education or master’s degrees believed more strongly in children’s competences and abilities to invite other children to participate than those with less education. When the participants were asked to choose between children learning belonging through play and interaction with other children or from them being role models for the children, those with a master’s degree were more likely to believe that children learned through play and relationships with other children. They were also more likely to find children competent to understand perspectives of children who had different competences and backgrounds. Concerning the power position of children, the educators mainly thought language could exclude children from their peer group and were concerned about the position of children with diverse language and cultural backgrounds. Few mentioned culture or religion, issues that previous research has shown to be important for children’s belonging (Kalkman & Clark, 2017; Kernan, 2010; Sadownik, 2018). The participants showed willingness to promote belonging among children with foreign backgrounds through understanding and discussion about diversity and emphasis on peer friendships.
 

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