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Fjölónæmir berklar á Íslandi: : tilfellaröð og yfirlit

Fjölónæmir berklar á Íslandi: : tilfellaröð og yfirlit


Title: Fjölónæmir berklar á Íslandi: : tilfellaröð og yfirlit
Alternative Title: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Iceland - Case series and review of the literature
Author: Ásgeirsson, Hilmir
Blöndal, Kai
Blöndal, Þorsteinn
Gottfreðsson, Magnús
Date: 2009
Language: Icelandic
Scope: 9
University/Institute: Landspítali
Department: Önnur svið
Series: Læknablaðið; 95(7)
ISSN: 0023-7213
Subject: Berklar; MDR; Multidrug resistance; Preventive measures; Treatment; Tuberculosis; Læknisfræði (allt)
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3222

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Citation:

Ásgeirsson , H , Blöndal , K , Blöndal , Þ & Gottfreðsson , M 2009 , ' Fjölónæmir berklar á Íslandi: tilfellaröð og yfirlit ' , Læknablaðið , bind. 95 , nr. 7 , bls. 499-507 . < https://www.laeknabladid.is/2009/0708/nr/3561 >

Abstract:

 
Inngangur: Fjölónæmir berklar eru vaxandi vandamál í heiminum. Árangur meðferðar er verri, sjúkrahúslegur lengri og kostnaður hærri en við lyfnæma berkla. Hér er lýst þremur tilfellum fjölónæmra berkla sem greinst hafa á Íslandi síðastliðin sex ár, 2003-2008. Sjúkratilfelli: Fyrsta tilfellið var 23 ára innflytjandi frá Asíu sem lokið hafði fyrirbyggjandi meðferð vegna jákvæðs berklaprófs. Tveimur árum síðar lagðist hann inn með berkla í kviðarholi sem reyndust vera fjölónæmir. Hann lauk 18 mánaða meðferð og læknaðist. Annað tilfellið var 23 ára maður sem lagðist inn vegna fjölónæmra lungnaberkla. Hann hafði áður fengið meðferð í heimalandi sínu í A-Evrópu en ekki lokið henni. Hann lá inni í sjö mánuði og náði bata en gert var ráð fyrir tveggja ára meðferð. Þriðja tilfellið var 27 ára einkennalaus kona sem greindist með fjölónæma lungnaberkla við rakningu smits vegna fjölónæmra berkla bróður. Fyrirhuguð var 18 mánaða meðferð. Ályktun: Á síðustu sex árum greindust þrjú tilfelli fjölónæmra berkla hér á landi sem er nálægt 5% allra berklatilfella á tímabilinu. Á 12 árum þar á undan greindist eitt tilfelli og gæti þetta bent til yfirvofandi fjölgunar. Fjölónæmir berklar eru alvarlegir, erfiðir og kostnaðarsamir í meðhöndlun. Mikilvægt er að standa vel að berklavörnum, sérstaklega skimun innflytjenda. Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) is a growing health problem in the world. Treatment outcomes are poorer, duration longer and costs higher. We report three cases of MDR-TB diagnosed in Iceland in a six year period, 2003-8. Case descriptions: The first case was a 23-year-old immigrant with a prior history of latent TB infection treated with isoniazid. He was admitted two years later with peritoneal MDR-TB. He was treated for 18 months and improved. The second case was a 23-year-old immigrant diagnosed with pulmonary MDR-TB after having dropped out of treatment in his country of origin. Clinical and microbiological response was achieved and two years of treatment were planned. The third case involved a 27- year-old asymptomatic woman diagnosed with MDR-TB on contact tracing, because of her brother’s MDR-TB. 18 months of treatment were planned. Conclusions: Clustering of cases of MDR-TB in the last six years, accounting for almost 5% of all Icelandic TB cases in the period, suggests that an increase in incidence might be seen in Iceland in coming years. The infection poses a health risk to the patients and the general public as well as a financial burden on the health care system. Emphasis should be put on rapid diagnosis and correct treatment, together with appropriate immigration screening and contact tracing.
 
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) is a growing health problem in the world. Treatment outcomes are poorer, duration longer and costs higher. We report three cases of MDR-TB diagnosed in Iceland in a six year period, 2003-8. Case descriptions: The first case was a 23-year-old immigrant with a prior history of latent TB infection treated with isoniazid. He was admitted two years later with peritoneal MDR-TB. He was treated for 18 months and improved. The second case was a 23-year-old immigrant diagnosed with pulmonary MDR-TB after having dropped out of treatment in his country of origin. Clinical and microbiological response was achieved and two years of treatment were planned. The third case involved a 27- year-old asymptomatic woman diagnosed with MDR-TB on contact tracing, because of her brother's MDR-TB. 18 months of treatment were planned. Conclusions: Clustering of cases of MDR-TB in the last six years, accounting for almost 5% of all Icelandic TB cases in the period, suggests that an increase in incidence might be seen in Iceland in coming years. The infection poses a health risk to the patients and the general public as well as a financial burden on the health care system. Emphasis should be put on rapid diagnosis and correct treatment, together with appropriate immigration screening and contact tracing.
 

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