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Þekking og aðferðir grunnskólakennara á Íslandi í stuðningi við nemendur með ADHD

Þekking og aðferðir grunnskólakennara á Íslandi í stuðningi við nemendur með ADHD


Title: Þekking og aðferðir grunnskólakennara á Íslandi í stuðningi við nemendur með ADHD
Alternative Title: Icelandic primary and lower secondary school teacher knowledge and methods for supporting students with ADHD
Author: Guðmundsdóttir, Bergljót Gyða
Karlsdóttir, Erla
Sigmarsdóttir, Margrét
Date: 2021-09-10
Language: Icelandic
Scope: 22
Department: Deild menntunar og margbreytileika
Deild heilsueflingar, íþrótta og tómstunda
Series: Netla - veftímarit um uppeldi og menntun; ()
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24270/netla.2021.10
Subject: ADHD; Grunnskólakennarar; Nemendur með sérþarfir; Stuðningsúrræði; ADHD; Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; Teachers; Evidence-based practice; Student support
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3177

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Citation:

Guðmundsdóttir , B G , Karlsdóttir , E & Sigmarsdóttir , M 2021 , ' Þekking og aðferðir grunnskólakennara á Íslandi í stuðningi við nemendur með ADHD ' , Netla - veftímarit um uppeldi og menntun . https://doi.org/10.24270/netla.2021.10

Abstract:

 
Árangursríkar forvarnir og stuðningur fyrir börn og ungmenni með taugaþroskaraskanir, svo sem athyglisbrest með/án ofvirkni/hvatvísi (ADHD), eru nauðsynleg til að styðja við farsælan þroska þeirra. Starfsfólk skóla gegnir gjarnan lykilhlutverki við að veita þann stuðning og er því mikilvægt að það hafi tækifæri, þekkingu og færni til að sinna honum á besta mögulega hátt. Markmið þessarar rannsóknar var að meta hvaðan þekking starfandi grunnskólakennara á Íslandi sem kenndu að lágmarki einum nemanda með frum- eða staðfesta greiningu á ADHD um röskunina kæmi, hversu vel undirbúnir þeir teldu sig vera fyrir kennslu þessa nemendahóps, áherslur þeirra og aðferðir við stuðning þessara nemenda og fleira. Öllum meðlimum í Félagi grunnskólakennara var sendur tölvupóstur með boði um þátttöku í rafrænni könnun og úrtak þessarar rannsóknar samanstóð af N = 592 grunnskólakennurum sem uppfylltu fyrrgreind þátttökuskilyrði (svarhlutfall 13%). Niðurstöður sýndu að flestir þátttakendur (91%) byggðu þekkingu sína um ADHD á reynslu af kennslu nemenda með röskunina sem er í samræmi við niðurstöður fyrri rannsókna. Marktæk tengsl komu fram milli ýmissa svara þátttakenda og starfsaldurs þeirra. Meðal annars kom í ljós að fleiri kennarar með styttri starfsaldur (60–66%) sögðust sækja þekkingu á ADHD til náms síns en kennarar sem starfað höfðu lengur (29–44%). Meirihluti þátttakenda sagðist beita einhverjum þeirra aðferða sem teljast árangursríkar í stuðningi við nemendur með ADHD og virtust þeir einnig hafa nokkra þekkingu á gagnreyndum úrræðum. Niðurstöður bentu jafnframt til þess að kennarar gætu haft gagn af starfsþróun á þessu sviði, sérstaklega ráðgjöf og handleiðslu í gagnreyndum aðferðum við stuðning og mat á árangri innan skóla fyrir nemendur með ADHD. Farið er yfir helstu takmarkanir rannsóknarinnar og tillögur settar fram um næstu skref í rannsóknum á þessu efni.
 
Effective prevention and intervention for children and youth with neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is crucial to supporting their positive development. School staff are often the primary agents of intervention for this group of students and it is important, therefore, that they be afforded opportunities and training in providing effective supports, based on best practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate Icelandic primary and lower secondary school teachers’ sources of knowledge and perceived preparation regarding ADHD, their use of various support/instructional and progress monitoring practices for this group of students, and their perceptions of various aspects of their professional environment, in a sample of N = 592 (88.5% female) in-service elementary school teachers in Iceland, who taught at least one student with ADHD that school year. Participants were recruited via email sent to all members of the Association of Teachers in Primary and Lower Secondary Schools in Iceland and invited to participate in an online survey (13% response rate). The study was approved by the National Bioethics Committee in Iceland (reference no. VSN19-070). Consistent with previous findings, results revealed that most participants (91%) reported deriving knowledge about ADHD from their experience of teaching students with the disorder. Teaching experience was significantly associated with participants’ self- -reported level of preparation for supporting students with ADHD. Specifically, participants with greater teaching experience were more likely to report that their pre-service training (e.g., teacher education program) prepared them poorly for teaching students with ADHD, compared to participants with fewer years of teaching experience. This may suggest that in recent years, teacher education program development in Iceland has led to enhanced preparation of future teachers in working with students with ADHD, although more research is needed to better investigate this hypothesis. A majority of 17 Netla – Veftímarit um uppeldi og menntun participants endorsed the use of certain effective strategies for supporting students with ADHD as well as informal progress monitoring methods. Participants also appeared to possess some knowledge concerning well-established ADHD treatment methods, including pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Approximately 20% of participants considered themselves to attend either “somewhat poorly“ or “very poorly“ to the needs of their students with ADHD, and a third of participants indicated they were “somewhat dissatisfied“ or “very dissatisfied“ with the professional support they received as part of working with this student population. Overall, results indicated that in-service teachers in Icelandic primary and lower secondary schools might benefit from increased professional development in this area. Behavioral consultation regarding evidence-based strategies (e.g., providing clear, explicit instruction, using descriptive praise and other forms of positive reinforcement) to support students with ADHD, as well as methods for progress monitoring may be particularly helpful in this regard. Supporting school staff in monitoring student progress using valid and reliable methods may also help increase the effectiveness of school-based interventions for students with the disorder, and better tailor supports to suit student needs. In addition to receiving training in applying well- -established support strategies for ADHD in the classroom, offering school professionals information about the methods that do not show evidence supporting their effectiveness might also be helpful. Knowing both what works, as well as what is unlikely to work, may aid school staff in selecting the best interventions available and help save precious time and energy. Research examining the effectiveness of behavioral consultation for both teachers and students is needed, including whether and how potential effects of consultation unfold over time (e.g., across one or more school years). Ideally, future studies should comprise qualitative (e.g., interviews with school staff, students, and families) methods to capture the unique views and experiences of school community members, as well as quantitative (e.g., randomized, controlled trials) methods, to allow for stronger inferences concerning intervention effectiveness. Well-designed studies using mixed methods are highly informative for the field of education. Successful application of such findings is likely to help school staff, families, and ultimately students to thrive and flourish.
 

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