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Sköpunar- og tæknismiðjur í þremur grunnskólum: Framkvæmd og kennslufræði fyrstu skrefin

Sköpunar- og tæknismiðjur í þremur grunnskólum: Framkvæmd og kennslufræði fyrstu skrefin


Title: Sköpunar- og tæknismiðjur í þremur grunnskólum: Framkvæmd og kennslufræði fyrstu skrefin
Alternative Title: Implementation of makerspaces in three Icelandic compulsory schools: Praxis and pedagogy, the first steps
Author: Jónsdóttir, Svanborg R.
Kjartansdóttir, Skúlína Hlíf   orcid.org/0000-0001-6817-5462
Jónsdóttir, Svala
Pétursdóttir, Svava   orcid.org/0000-0002-1206-8745
Hjartarson, Torfi   orcid.org/0000-0003-4382-6331
Date: 2021-09-21
Language: Icelandic
Scope:
Department: Deild kennslu- og menntunarfræði
Deild faggreinakennslu
Series: Netla; ()
ISSN: 1670-0244
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24270/netla.2021.9
Subject: Sköpun; Sköpunarsmiðjur; Sköpunarsmiðjur; Kennslufræði; Stafræn tækni; Þróunarverkefni; Skólaþróun; Creativity; Makerspaces; Emancipatory pedagogy; Digital technology; School development; Coherence; Educamps
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3166

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Citation:

Jónsdóttir , S R , Kjartansdóttir , S H , Jónsdóttir , S , Pétursdóttir , S & Hjartarson , T 2021 , ' Sköpunar- og tæknismiðjur í þremur grunnskólum: Framkvæmd og kennslufræði fyrstu skrefin ' , Netla . https://doi.org/10.24270/netla.2021.9

Abstract:

 
Samtíminn er fullur af móthverfum sem fela í sér ógnir og tækifæri, álitamál og áskoranir. Nútímasamfélag kallar á skólastarf, þar sem nemendur eru virkir og skapandi þátttakendur, færir um að móta eigið nám. Þessi rannsókn segir frá fyrsta ári af þremur í þróunarverkefni þriggja grunnskóla í Reykjavík um sköpunar- og tæknismiðjur (e. makerspaces). Hún á að auka skilning á hvað þarf til að nýsköpun og hönnun í anda sköpunarsmiðja skjóti rótum í starfi grunnskóla og á hvaða uppeldis- og kennslufræði þar er byggt. Leitast er við að greina hvað helst einkenndi og hafði áhrif á innleiðingu tæknilausna, nemendavinnu og kennsluhátta í þeim anda. Byggt er á eigindlegri nálgun og reynt að fá innsýn í reynslu fólks, viðhorf og hugsun í verkefninu. Rannsóknargögn samanstanda af vettvangsathugunum, viðtölum við skólastjórnendur, verkefnisstjóra og teymi kennara í skólunum þremur, auk styrkumsóknar, upplýsingavefs og síðu Facebook--hóps. Lýst er hvernig margir þættir spila saman og takast á við framgang verkefnisins ásamt tilraunum kennara á þeim grunni. Ekki síst er athygli beint að hugmyndum um kennslu og eflandi kennslufræði sem þar birtast eða búa að baki. Viðhorf og stuðningur skólastjórnenda, starf verkefnisstjóranna, viðhorf, reynsla og færni kennara, skilningur á verkefninu og mikilvægi þess, skipulag stundaskrár, samtal og samstaða eru þættir sem virðast skipta máli í innleiðingunni en einnig sérstaða einstakra skóla auk hefðar fyrir þemanámi þvert á greinasvið, teymiskennslu og skapandi starfi. Mörg uppbyggileg skref voru stigin á þessu fyrsta ári sem þarf að fylgja eftir með virku samtali og samvirkni þessara þátta.
 
In the past few decades we have seen huge technological advancements, demographic shifts, economic expansion and profound cultural changes. The generations now growing up have been immersed in digital technology from their birth. We do, in our modern contemporary society, need a shift in education towards teaching and learning, where students are more active and creative participants, having the agency to shape their own learning. This research presents the first year of three in a school development project on implementing makerspaces to support such a shift in three compulsory schools in Reykjavík, the capital city of Iceland: Ingunnarskóli, Selásskóli and Vesturbæjarskóli (2019). Our study aims to increase understanding of what is needed for the innovation and design thinking of makerspaces to set roots in compulsory school practice and the pedagogies underlying “making” in school contexts. We want to identify characteristic and influential factors in the developmental process during the initial year of collaboration and implementation, as well as mapping how participants look upon and experience the project. Theoretical background We build our understanding and interpretation of the findings on theories and research on school and educational development (Fullan, 2019; Gerður G. Óskarsdóttir, 2014; Helga Sigríður Þórsdóttir and Anna Kristín Sigurðardóttir, 2020; Mason, 2008), digital technology and development of fab-labs and makerspaces (Blikstein, 2013; Halverson and Sheridan, 2014; Litts, 2015), creativity (Eisner, 2002), agency (Emirbayer and Mische, 1998; Moore, 2016; Svanborg R. Jónsdóttir og Rósa Gunnarsdóttir, 2017) and emancipatory pedagogy (Svanborg R. Jónsdóttir, 2012; Svanborg R. Jónsdóttir and Rósa Gunnarsdóttir, 2017). Method The research is grounded in qualitative methodology, where we seek to gain insight into participants’ attitudes and experiences and connect these to the focus of the research (Creswell, 2013). The research data consists of field notes, interviews with principals, project managers, two teams of teachers in each of the three schools, as well as grant application documents, the schools’ application for funding, a public project website and a Facebook site where staff members share their efforts and experiences in making. Findings The findings reflect how we as researchers see or interpret coherent and contradictory factors affecting the process of introduction and initial implementation during the first year of the project. Many different influential factors were at play. Support and interest of principals, proactive efforts of project managers, attitudes, experience and skills of teachers, how the project and its importance was understood, the organization of the school timetable and conversations and solidarity were all issues that appeared to make a difference in the implementation of the makerspaces. Many steps, actions, attitudes and different roles characterised the project in the first year. Principals and project managers shared a genuine belief in the potential of the developmental project to change teaching approaches towards the needs of modern education by enhancing creativity, supporting technological literacy, integrating knowledge, encouraging teamwork and giving students ample agency. We see the all- female project managers both as “midwives” helping to deliver a precious baby and as “gardeners” sowing seeds and tending to them as they sprout and grow. A key effort in this respect was to conduct educamps for all three schools, twice or three times over each school term. Some of the teacher teams showed enthusiasm and readiness to embrace the affordances of makerspaces while others were more hesitant or reluctant. Some indicators revealed how the flow of information and conversations between teachers, project managers and principals had not reached all the teaching staff and was seen by some members as a top-down venture. We saw many interesting examples of integrative and creative school projects built on the makerspace approach, both digital productions and hands-on constructions from recyclable or other tangible materials. Our analysis of the pedagogical modes emerging in those projects indicated that they varied from being teacher controlled, to being progressive, involving less teacher control, and even being emancipatory in character with ample student agency and creativity. Many positive steps have been taken in this first year of implementation and this needs to be followed up with constructive conversations and exchanges between all stakeholders to ensure that all elements and factors at work in the project culminate in a momentum coherent enough to move this developmental undertaking in the right direction. Conclusions Many positive steps were taken in this first year and they need to be purposefully followed up with constructive and active conversations between stakeholders in order to make the coherence of elements and momentum push in the intended direction.
 

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