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Netkennsla og stafræn tækni í grunnskólum á tímum farsóttar vorið 2020: Sýn kennara

Netkennsla og stafræn tækni í grunnskólum á tímum farsóttar vorið 2020: Sýn kennara


Title: Netkennsla og stafræn tækni í grunnskólum á tímum farsóttar vorið 2020: Sýn kennara
Alternative Title: Online teaching and digital technologies at primary and lower secondary school level in times of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020: Views of teachers and principals
Author: Jakobsdóttir, Sólveig   orcid.org/0000-0002-4205-0888
Gissurardóttir, Salvör
Kjartansdóttir, Skúlína Hlíf   orcid.org/0000-0001-6817-5462
Pétursdóttir, Svava   orcid.org/0000-0002-1206-8745
Hjartarson, Torfi
Date: 2021-12-31
Language: Icelandic
Scope:
Department: Deild faggreinakennslu
Deild kennslu- og menntunarfræði
Series: Netla; ()
ISSN: 1670-0244
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24270/netla.2021.16
Subject: Fjarkennsla; Blönduð kennsla; Blönduð kennsla; Skólaþróun; COVID-19; Stafræn tækni; online learning; distance education; digital technologies; primary and lower secondary schools; COVID-19; SDG 4 - Menntun fyrir alla
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3165

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Citation:

Jakobsdóttir , S , Gissurardóttir , S , Kjartansdóttir , S H , Pétursdóttir , S & Hjartarson , T 2021 , ' Netkennsla og stafræn tækni í grunnskólum á tímum farsóttar vorið 2020: Sýn kennara ' , Netla . https://doi.org/10.24270/netla.2021.16

Abstract:

 
Á vormánuðum 2020 urðu miklar takmarkanir á grunnskólastarfi hér á landi vegna faraldurs COVID-19, skólum var víða skipt í sóttvarnahólf, hópastærðir takmarkaðar, nemendahópar sendir heim um skemmri eða lengri tíma og kennsla á völdum greinasviðum lögð af um skeið. Menntavísindasvið og Menntavísindastofnun Háskóla Íslands stóðu af þessu tilefni fyrir viðamikilli könnun á öllum skólastigum til að meta áhrif faraldursins á menntun og skólastarf. Hér er fjallað um þann hluta könnunarinnar sem sneri að notkun á stafrænni tækni á meðan hefðbundið skólastarf var skert með ýmsu móti þessa vormánuði og byggt á svörum 1550 kennara, sérkennara og leiðbeinenda við 151 grunnskóla. Markmið með þeim hluta könnunarinnar var að draga fram og rýna áhrif faraldursins á netnotkun og beitingu stafrænnar tækni í starfi grunnskóla. Í ljós kom að meirihluti svarenda taldi skólana vel búna stafrænum verkfærum og starfsliðið vel undir það búið að takast á við aukin tölvusamskipti, blandaða kennslu og netkennslu. Þó voru sumir þeirrar skoðunar, ekki síst í hópi kennara á yngri stigum, að ef la þyrfti búnað skóla og kunnáttu kennara á þessu sviði. Meirihluti kennara taldi að aðgengi nemenda að tækni heima fyrir dygði vel til samskipta og netnáms í faraldrinum en sumir kennarar, einkum á yngri stigum, virtust telja að nokkuð hefði skort á aðgengi að búnaði heima hjá nemendum. Niðurstöður sýna að miklar breytingar hafa orðið á kennsluháttum og nýtingu stafrænnar tækni meðan á faraldrinum hefur staðið. Skýrt kom í ljós aukning blandaðs náms og netnáms á unglingastigi, töluverð aukning á miðstigi og merkjanlegar breytingar allt niður á yngsta stig. Þá hafði faraldurinn bæði letjandi og hvetjandi áhrif á skapandi starf með hjálp stafrænnar tækni. Meirihluti svarenda taldi að reynslan í COVID-faraldrinum myndi breyta kennsluháttum í skólum þeirra til frambúðar. Þátttakendum þótti mikilvægt að búa kennara undir aukna netkennslu og umtalsverður áhugi kom fram á að sækja einingabært nám um hagnýtar leiðir í notkun tækni í námi og kennslu. Niðurstöður benda til að aðstæður kennara, kunnátta og færni séu með ýmsu móti og ef la þurfi greiningu á stöðu stafrænnar tækni í grunnskólum.
 
During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, an increased research focus on digital competence of teachers and learners and the development of distance and online learning and education has become vital for educational systems all over the world. In Iceland, most schools at primary and lower secondary level stayed open but with considerable restrictions in terms of social distance and number of people allowed in each location. Online teaching and learning increased substantially as a result, especially for students at lower secondary level (grades 8 to 10). Surveys were sent out in spring 2020 (survey was open April 27 to May 26) by the Educational Research Institute (ERI) at the University School of Education to start charting the effects of the COVID-19 situation on learners and schools at primary and secondary level. Researchers in this project group contributed questions, relating to the use of digital technologies and online learning, to surveys for school staff in 151 schools. The results introduced in this paper are based on the answers of 1770 staff members. Of this group, 1263 indicated that they were teachers,188 school administrators, 257 special education teachers, and 180 instructors without a teaching license (participants could check more than one role). The majority of all participant groups (61–70%) thought that the schools were very well (25–32%) or rather well (36–39%) equipped with digital technologies. Also, the majority (65–70%) thought the staff was very well (15–27%) or rather well (38–53%) prepared to deal with increased online communication and distance education. Furthermore, a majority of all groups (56–77%) thought students’ technological access was sufficient for online communication and distance learning. The results indicated a large increase regarding blended and online learning. The teachers indicated that before the pandemic, 78% of their teaching was in the schools but only 19% of the teaching was web-supported and 3% blended. Conversely, during the pandemic, 30% indicated that teaching was mostly in the school, 28% web-supported, 18% blended, 13% mostly online, and 10% only online. The increase in online teaching and learning was considerable, for example, regarding online discussion and chat, students’ social activities, teachers’ instruction and demonstrations, and teachers’ collaboration.About half of the teachers (53%) reported an increase in online meetings (via Google Meet, Skype, Zoom or Teams) and over 40% reported an increase in email use as well as in the use of learning management systems (such as Google Classroom, MySchool or Moodle). The teaching of some subjects was cancelled or reduced, for example arts and crafts, and in some cases ICT. The majority of all participant groups thought that the COVID-19 pandemic would change teaching and learning in their schools in the long-term/permanently. To plan for the future, many thought it was important to prepare teachers for increased online and distance education. Many staff members were interested in credit-courses focused on the practical use of distance technologies in teaching and learning. Although the majority of schools, teachers and learners appeared to have dealt well with increased online learning, there were considerable differences between schools and teachers. In open-ended questions, many teachers reported their worries about vulnerable students with a weak background regarding, for example, access to technologies. It is important to study how ready schools are to operate online and teachers to teach and work online and how digital competences of teachers and students in schools can be assessed and facilitated. Lessons should be learned from the evolving experiences for an intermediate period where school closures or restrictions for social gatherings may be set repeatedly while the virus spread is controlled. It is important to help shape a policy for the long-term development of online learning and teachers’ and learners’ digital competences.
 

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