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Changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis during the COVID-19 pandemic in 26 countries and territories in the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance Initiative : a prospective analysis of surveillance data

Changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis during the COVID-19 pandemic in 26 countries and territories in the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance Initiative : a prospective analysis of surveillance data


Title: Changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis during the COVID-19 pandemic in 26 countries and territories in the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance Initiative : a prospective analysis of surveillance data
Author: Brueggemann, Angela B.
Jansen van Rensburg, Melissa J.
Shaw, David
McCarthy, Noel D.
Jolley, Keith A.
Maiden, Martin C.J.
van der Linden, Mark P.G.
Amin-Chowdhury, Zahin
Bennett, Désirée E.
Borrow, Ray
... 85 more authors Show all authors
Date: 2021-06
Language: English
Scope: e360-e370
University/Institute: Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland
Department: Clinical Laboratory Services, Diagnostics and Blood Bank
Faculty of Medicine
Series: The Lancet Digital Health; 3(6)
ISSN: 2589-7500
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00077-7
Subject: Nýgengi sjúkdóma; Öndunarfærasjúkdómar; Lýðheilsa; Respiratory infections; Streptococcus agalactiae; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Bacterial infection; incidence; Haemophilus influenzae; Public health; Bacterial Infections/epidemiology; Prospective Studies; Interrupted Time Series Analysis; Humans; Neisseria meningitidis; Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology; Incidence; Public Health Practice; COVID-19/prevention & control; Population Surveillance; Decision Sciences (miscellaneous); Health Information Management; Health Informatics; Medicine (miscellaneous)
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/2851

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Citation:

Brueggemann , A B , Jansen van Rensburg , M J , Shaw , D , McCarthy , N D , Jolley , K A , Maiden , M C J , van der Linden , M P G , Amin-Chowdhury , Z , Bennett , D E , Borrow , R , Brandileone , M C C , Broughton , K , Campbell , R , Cao , B , Casanova , C , Choi , E H , Chu , Y W , Clark , S A , Claus , H , Coelho , J , Corcoran , M , Cottrell , S , Cunney , R J , Dalby , T , Davies , H , de Gouveia , L , Deghmane , A E , Demczuk , W , Desmet , S , Drew , R J , du Plessis , M , Erlendsdóttir , H , Fry , N K , Fuursted , K , Gray , S J , Henriques-Normark , B , Hale , T , Hilty , M , Hoffmann , S , Humphreys , H , Ip , M , Jacobsson , S , Johnston , J , Kozakova , J , Kristinsson , K G , Krizova , P , Kuch , A , Ladhani , S N , Lâm , T T , Lebedova , V , Lindholm , L , Litt , D J , Martin , I , Martiny , D , Mattheus , W , McElligott , M , Meehan , M , Meiring , S , Mölling , P , Morfeldt , E , Morgan , J , Mulhall , R M , Muñoz-Almagro , C , Murdoch , D R , Murphy , J , Musilek , M , Mzabi , A , Perez-Argüello , A , Perrin , M , Perry , M , Redin , A , Roberts , R , Roberts , M , Rokney , A , Ron , M , Scott , K J , Sheppard , C L , Siira , L , Skoczyńska , A , Sloan , M , Slotved , H C , Smith , A J , Song , J Y , Taha , M K , Toropainen , M , Tsang , D , Vainio , A , van Sorge , N M , Varon , E , Vlach , J , Vogel , U , Vohrnova , S , von Gottberg , A , Zanella , R C & Zhou , F 2021 , ' Changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis during the COVID-19 pandemic in 26 countries and territories in the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance Initiative : a prospective analysis of surveillance data ' , The Lancet Digital Health , vol. 3 , no. 6 , pp. e360-e370 . https://doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00077-7

Abstract:

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets, are leading causes of invasive diseases, including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: In this prospective analysis of surveillance data, laboratories in 26 countries and territories across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis from Jan 1, 2018, to May, 31, 2020, as part of the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative. Numbers of weekly cases in 2020 were compared with corresponding data for 2018 and 2019. Data for invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae, a non-respiratory pathogen, were collected from nine laboratories for comparison. The stringency of COVID-19 containment measures was quantified using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed using Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time-series modelling quantified changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed. Findings: 27 laboratories from 26 countries and territories submitted data to the IRIS Initiative for S pneumoniae (62 837 total cases), 24 laboratories from 24 countries submitted data for H influenzae (7796 total cases), and 21 laboratories from 21 countries submitted data for N meningitidis (5877 total cases). All countries and territories had experienced a significant and sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in early 2020 (Jan 1 to May 31, 2020), coinciding with the introduction of COVID-19 containment measures in each country. By contrast, no significant changes in the incidence of invasive S agalactiae infections were observed. Similar trends were observed across most countries and territories despite differing stringency in COVID-19 control policies. The incidence of reported S pneumoniae infections decreased by 68% at 4 weeks (incidence rate ratio 0·32 [95% CI 0·27–0·37]) and 82% at 8 weeks (0·18 [0·14–0·23]) following the week in which significant changes in population movements were recorded. Interpretation: The introduction of COVID-19 containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission of S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide. Funding: Wellcome Trust (UK), Robert Koch Institute (Germany), Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), Pfizer, Merck, Health Protection Surveillance Centre (Ireland), SpID-Net project (Ireland), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (European Union), Horizon 2020 (European Commission), Ministry of Health (Poland), National Programme of Antibiotic Protection (Poland), Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland), Agencia de Salut Pública de Catalunya (Spain), Sant Joan de Deu Foundation (Spain), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), Swedish Research Council (Sweden), Region Stockholm (Sweden), Federal Office of Public Health of Switzerland (Switzerland), and French Public Health Agency (France).

Description:

Funding text #1 We thank all the hospitals and clinical microbiology laboratories who submitted data and isolates to the reference laboratories as part of their surveillance programmes. We acknowledge the assistance of laboratory personnel who made important contributions to the microbiological data in this study: Wendy Keijzers, Ilse Schuurman, and Agaath Arends in the Netherlands Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Meningitis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Marie-C?cile Ploy, Carole Grelaud, and all the microbiologists of the French Regional Observatory of Pneumococci Network (Limoges, France); Alice Enefer, Anna Lewis, Karina Micah, Samuel Rose, Chenchal Dhami, and Roger Daniel at the Public Health England Respiratory and Vaccine Preventable Bacteria Unit, London, UK; Xilian Bai, Aiswarya Lekshmi, Jay Lucidarme, Andrew Walker, Lloyd Walsh, and Laura Willerton at the Public Health England Meningococcal Reference Unit in Manchester, UK; Ana Paula Silva de Lemos and Samanta Cristine Grassi Almeida at the ...View all Funding text #2 We thank all the hospitals and clinical microbiology laboratories who submitted data and isolates to the reference laboratories as part of their surveillance programmes. We acknowledge the assistance of laboratory personnel who made important contributions to the microbiological data in this study: Wendy Keijzers, Ilse Schuurman, and Agaath Arends in the Netherlands Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Meningitis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Marie-Cécile Ploy, Carole Grelaud, and all the microbiologists of the French Regional Observatory of Pneumococci Network (Limoges, France); Alice Enefer, Anna Lewis, Karina Micah, Samuel Rose, Chenchal Dhami, and Roger Daniel at the Public Health England Respiratory and Vaccine Preventable Bacteria Unit, London, UK; Xilian Bai, Aiswarya Lekshmi, Jay Lucidarme, Andrew Walker, Lloyd Walsh, and Laura Willerton at the Public Health England Meningococcal Reference Unit in Manchester, UK; Ana Paula Silva de Lemos and Samanta Cristine Grassi Almeida at the ...View all Funding text #3 The following authors received support for work unrelated to this study: MPGvdL has received grants from Pfizer, Merck, and the Robert Koch Institut; RB has done contract research on behalf of Public Health England for GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, and Sanofi Pasteur, but received no personal remuneration; MC has received grants from Pfizer; SAC has done contract research on behalf of Public Health England for GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, and Sanofi Pasteur, but received no personal remuneration; SD has received a grant from Pfizer; SJG did contract research (carriage studies) for vaccine manufacturers (GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer) on behalf of Public Health England, but received no personal remuneration; MH has received grants from Pfizer and the Federal Office of Public Health, and personal fees (for being on an advisory board) from Pfizer and Merck Sharp & Dohme; HH has received grants from Astellas and Pfizer; KAJ has received a grant from Wellcome Trust and personal fees from GlaxoSmithKline; SNL has done contract research for vaccine manufacturers (GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, and Sanofi Pasteur) on behalf of St. George's University of London, but received no personal remuneration; DJL has received grants from GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer; SM has received a grant from Sanofi Pasteur; CM-A has received grants from Quiastat, Roche, Pfizer, and Genomica, and personal fees from Roche, Pfizer, and Qiagen; LS has received a grant from GlaxoSmithKline; H-CS has received a grant from Pfizer; MI has received non-financial support from GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer, personal fees from Pfizer (speaker fees) and Merck Sharp & Dohme (speaker fees), and grants from Merck Sharp & Dohme; M-KT has received grants from GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, and Sanofi Pasteur; ASk has received grants and non-financial support from Pfizer, and personal fees from Pfizer, Merck Sharp & Dohme, and Sanofi Pasteur; CLS has received grants from Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline for investigator-led research; EV has received grants on behalf of her institution (Intercommunal Hospital of Créteil) from Pfizer and Merck Sharp & Dohme; MT has received grants from GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer; NKF's institution (Public Health England) has received funding for investigator-initiated research from GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, and Affinivax, but NKF received no personal remuneration; AvG has received a grant from Sanofi Pasteur; NMvS has received a grant from Pfizer, a fee for service paid to their institution from Merck Sharp & Dohme and GlaxoSmithKline, and also has a patent (WO 2013/020090 A3) on vaccine development against Streptococcus pyogenes, unrelated to this study, with royalties paid to University of California San Diego, CA, USA; and MKT has a patent (630133) for a vaccine for serogroup X meningococcus with GlaxoSmithKline. All other authors declare no competing interests. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license

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