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Cellular Plasticity and Heterotypic Interactions during Breast Morphogenesis and Cancer Initiation

Cellular Plasticity and Heterotypic Interactions during Breast Morphogenesis and Cancer Initiation


Title: Cellular Plasticity and Heterotypic Interactions during Breast Morphogenesis and Cancer Initiation
Author: Ingþórsson, Sævar
Traustadóttir, Gunnhildur Ásta
Guðjónsson, Þórarinn
Date: 2022-11
Language: English
Scope:
University/Institute: University of Iceland
Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland
School: Health Sciences
Department: Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery
Faculty of Medicine
Clinical Laboratory Services, Diagnostics and Blood Bank
Series: Cancers; 14(21)
ISSN: 2072-6694
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14215209
Subject: Náttúrufræðingar; breast cancer; mammary gland; microenvironment; plasticity; stem cells; tumor initiation; tumor progression; Oncology; Cancer Research
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3663

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Citation:

Ingþórsson , S , Traustadóttir , G Á & Guðjónsson , Þ 2022 , ' Cellular Plasticity and Heterotypic Interactions during Breast Morphogenesis and Cancer Initiation ' , Cancers , vol. 14 , no. 21 , 5209 . https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14215209

Abstract:

The human breast gland is a unique organ as most of its development occurs postnatally between menarche and menopause, a period ranging from 30 to 40 years. During this period, the monthly menstruation cycle drives the mammary gland through phases of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, facilitated via a closely choreographed interaction between the epithelial cells and the surrounding stroma preparing the gland for pregnancy. If pregnancy occurs, maximal differentiation is reached to prepare for lactation. After lactation, the mammary gland involutes to a pre-pregnant state. These cycles of proliferation, differentiation, and involution necessitate the presence of epithelial stem cells that give rise to progenitor cells which differentiate further into the luminal and myoepithelial lineages that constitute the epithelial compartment and are responsible for the branching structure of the gland. Maintaining homeostasis and the stem cell niche depends strongly on signaling between the stem and progenitor cells and the surrounding stroma. Breast cancer is a slowly progressing disease whose initiation can take decades to progress into an invasive form. Accumulating evidence indicates that stem cells and/or progenitor cells at different stages, rather than terminally differentiated cells are the main cells of origin for most breast cancer subgroups. Stem cells and cancer cells share several similarities such as increased survival and cellular plasticity which is reflected in their ability to switch fate by receiving intrinsic and extrinsic signals. In this review, we discuss the concept of cellular plasticity in normal breast morphogenesis and cancer, and how the stromal environment plays a vital role in cancer initiation and progression.

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Publisher Copyright: © 2022 by the authors.

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