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Incidence of and risk factors of chronic kidney disease: results of a nationwide study in Iceland

Incidence of and risk factors of chronic kidney disease: results of a nationwide study in Iceland


Title: Incidence of and risk factors of chronic kidney disease: results of a nationwide study in Iceland
Author: Jonsson, Arnar J.
Lund, Sigrun H.
Eriksen, Bjorn O.
Palsson, Runolfur   orcid.org/0000-0001-6763-1702
Indriðason, Ólafur Skúli
Date: 2022-02-25
Language: English
Scope:
University/Institute: Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland
Department: Faculty of Medicine
Office of Division of Clinical Services I
Series: Clinical Kidney Journal; ()
ISSN: 2048-8505
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfac051
Subject: Nýrnalæknisfræði; Nýrnasjúkdómar; chronic kidney disease; eGFR; incidence; KDIGO criteria; risk factors
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/3164

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Citation:

Jonsson , A J , Lund , S H , Eriksen , B O , Palsson , R & Indriðason , Ó S 2022 , ' Incidence of and risk factors of chronic kidney disease: results of a nationwide study in Iceland ' , Clinical Kidney Journal . https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfac051

Abstract:

Background Information on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population is scarce. This study examined the incidence and risk factors of CKD stages 1-5 in Iceland, based on multiple markers of kidney damage. Methods All serum creatinine (SCr) values, urine protein measurements and diagnosis codes for kidney diseases and comorbid conditions for people aged >= 18 years were obtained from electronic medical records of all healthcare institutions in Iceland in 2008-2016. CKD was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria as evidence for kidney damage and/or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 3 months. Alternatively, CKD was defined using age-adapted eGFR thresholds. Mean annual age-standardized incidence of CKD was calculated for persons without CKD at study entry. Risk factor assessment was based on International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes. Incidence was reported per 100 000 population. Results We retrieved 1 820 990 SCr values for 206 727 persons. Median age was 45 years (range, 18-106) and 47% were men. Mean annual age-standardized incidence of CKD per 100 000 was 649 in men and 694 in women, and 480 in men and 522 in women using age-adapted eGFR thresholds. The incidence reached over 3000 in men and women aged >75 years. Traditional CKD risk factors, such as acute kidney injury, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, as well as less well characterized risk factors, including chronic lung disease, malignancy and major psychiatric illness were associated with increased risk of CKD, and the same was true for obesity and sleep apnoea in women. Conclusion The annual incidence of CKD, with strict adherence to the KDIGO criteria, was <0.7% but markedly lower using age-adapted eGFR thresholds. Apart from acute kidney injury, the observed risk factors comprised chronic and potentially modifiable disorders.

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