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First Report of Resistance to Ivermectin in Parascaris univalens in Iceland

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dc.contributor The Institute for Experimental Pathology University of Iceland
dc.contributor University of Iceland
dc.contributor.author Martin, Frida
dc.contributor.author Svansson, Vilhjálmur
dc.contributor.author Eydal, Matthías
dc.contributor.author Oddsdóttir, Charlotta
dc.contributor.author Ernback, Maja
dc.contributor.author Persson, Isa
dc.contributor.author Tydén, Eva
dc.date.accessioned 2021-11-02T01:00:29Z
dc.date.available 2021-11-02T01:00:29Z
dc.date.issued 2021-01-25
dc.identifier.citation Martin , F , Svansson , V , Eydal , M , Oddsdóttir , C , Ernback , M , Persson , I & Tydén , E 2021 , ' First Report of Resistance to Ivermectin in Parascaris univalens in Iceland ' , The Journal of parasitology , vol. 107 , no. 1 , pp. 16-22 . https://doi.org/10.1645/20-91
dc.identifier.issn 0022-3395
dc.identifier.other PURE: 35386393
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: c0315869-b30a-4592-bfd1-e59d0a3bcede
dc.identifier.other Scopus: 85100500413
dc.identifier.other unpaywall: 10.1645/20-91
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11815/2699
dc.description © American Society of Parasitologists 2021.
dc.description.abstract Horses in Iceland have been isolated for more than 1,000 yr but still harbor a similar range of gastrointestinal parasites as do horses across the world. The long isolation of the horses and their parasites presumably means that no resistance genes have been introduced into the Parascaris spp. population. It is therefore of particular interest to investigate the efficacy of ivermectin on Parascaris spp. infecting Icelandic foals. Potential treatment failure of ivermectin in Iceland will add substantial new information on how resistance can arise independently. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of subcutaneous injection of ivermectin for the treatment of Parascaris spp. infection in foals and to identify the Parascaris species present in the west and north of Iceland. A fecal egg count reduction (FECR) test (FECRT) was performed on 50 foals from 8 farms, including an untreated control group of 6 foals, from September to November 2019. The foals were between 3 and 5 mo of age at the start of the study and had not previously been treated with anthelmintic drugs. Each foal was treated subcutaneously with off-label use of Ivomec® injection 10 mg/ml or Noromectin® 1% at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The FECR for each farm was calculated in 2 ways, by the eggCounts package in R and by the Presidente formula (FECRT). Both calculation methods resulted in efficacy levels between 0% and 80.78%, indicating ivermectin resistance on all farms. We also confirmed, by karyotyping, that the species of equine ascarid present in the west and north of Iceland is Parascaris univalens. This study provides evidence for treatment failure of ivermectin against P. univalens infection in foals. Since Icelandic horses have been isolated on the island for more than 1,000 yr, this implies that resistance alleles have developed independently in the Icelandic Parascaris population. The actual clinical impact of ivermectin resistance is unknown but another drug of choice should be considered to treat Parascaris infection in foals in Iceland.
dc.format.extent 7
dc.format.extent 16-22
dc.language.iso en
dc.relation.ispartofseries The Journal of parasitology; 107(1)
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Hestar
dc.subject Hestasjúkdómar
dc.subject Sníklar
dc.subject Lyfjaónæmi
dc.subject Animals
dc.subject Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology
dc.subject Ascaridida Infections/drug therapy
dc.subject Ascaridoidea/classification
dc.subject Bayes Theorem
dc.subject Drug Resistance
dc.subject Feces/parasitology
dc.subject Horse Diseases/drug therapy
dc.subject Horses
dc.subject Iceland
dc.subject Ivermectin/pharmacology
dc.subject Karyotyping/veterinary
dc.subject Parasite Egg Count/veterinary
dc.subject Surveys and Questionnaires
dc.title First Report of Resistance to Ivermectin in Parascaris univalens in Iceland
dc.type /dk/atira/pure/researchoutput/researchoutputtypes/contributiontojournal/article
dc.description.version Peer reviewed
dc.identifier.pmid 33498083
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1645/20-91
dc.relation.url http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85100500413&partnerID=8YFLogxK

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